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biology semester 1

active trasport

the transport of materials against a concentration gradient


phase of mitosis in which sister chromatids separate from each other

hypotonic solution

the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell

cell cycle

the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.


the period in which chromosomes duplicate


the segment of dna that controls the production of a protein


the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle

sister chromatids

two halves of the doubled chromosome structure


Uncontrolled Cell DIvision

facilitated diffusion

passive transport with the aid of transport protiens


the process by which nuclear material is divided equally between two new cells


some cells surround and take in materials by this process


the structures that hold together sister chromatids

ionic bonding

water dissolves many ionic and molecular compounds because of this


center of an atom

the atoms stop moving

when there is no difference in the concentration of a substance from one area to another


mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance


all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism

peptide bond

Bond between amino acids


a protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction

polar molecule

molecule with an unequal distribution of charge


large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together


the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration


atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons


atoms of two or more elements chemically combined are...


two atoms that share electrons are held together by these type of bonds

sex chromosomes

23rd pair of chromosomes that differ in males and females

multiple alleles

a trait controlled by four alleles is said to have this

deoxyribose sugar and thymine

a DNA nucleotide may be made up of a phosphate group, along with


during the process of transcription, DNA serves as the template for making_____ which leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribsomes

frameshift mutation

the addition or deletion of a single base in a DNA molecule

watson and crick

Figured out structure of DNA was a double helix

nitrogenous bases

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine


process in which DNA makes a copy of itself


each set of three nitrogenous bases representing and amino acid


brings amino acids to the ribosomes for the assembly of protiens

point mutation

a change in a single base pair in DNA molecule


failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis; results in gametes with too many or too few chromosomes


the process of converting RNA into an amino acid sequence

chromosomal mutation

when parts of chromosomes are broken off and lost or reattached incorrectly during mitosis or meiosis


mutations in DNA can result in cells reproducing rapidly, producing the disease called


The process by which organisms make more of their own kind from one generation to the next


in an experiment, the standard that is used for comparison


process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment


any structure, behavior, or internal process that enable an organism to better survive in an environment


a testable explanation for a question or problem

parts of adenosine diphosphate

ribose, adenine, two phosphate groups


the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis take place here


leaves appear green because the green portion of the light strikes them is


use light energy to change CO2 and water into O2 and carbohydrates

maintain homeostasis

requires detection and the ability to respond, an organism maintains a stable internal environment, characteristic of life

hydrogen ions

In respiration, the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain


2 molecules of ATP are used in the first step and 4 molecules of ATP are produced in the second step

light-dependent reactions release oxygen

in the process of photsynthesis

codominant alleles

cause the phenotypes of both homozygous to be produced in heterozygous individuals

completely dominant alleles

phenotypes of both heterozygous and homozygous dominant individuals have the same phenotype.

incomplete dominance

a phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate between those phenotypes expressed by the homozygotes


a heterozygous individual

simple recessive heredity

inheritance pattern of phenylketonuria and Tay-Sachs disease

polygenic inheritance

the inheritance pattern of a trait that is controlled by two or more genes


a graphic representation of an individual's family tree


the other 22 pairs of chromosomes

sex-linked traits

traits controlled by genes located on the X or Y chromosome

codominant alleles

when roan cattle are mated, 25% of the offspring are red, 50% are roan, and 25% are white. Upon examination, it can be seen that the coat of a roan cow consists of both red and white hairs. This trait is controlled by


having two identical alleles for a given trait

crossing over

the exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids


The uniting of the male and female gametes


cell division that produces gametes


failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis


the cell produced when a male gamete fuses with a female gamete


a cell that contains one member of each chromosome pair


different forms of genes


the transfer of a male pollen grain to the pistil of a flower


the gamete that contains genes contributed by the mother


two identical alleles for a trait


(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes


Mendel's law of heredity "in meiosis, the way in which a chromosome pair separates does not affect the way other pairs separate

provide usable nitrogen for the plants

bacteria that live in the roots of legumes

binary fission

The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.

causing holes to develop in their cell walls

penicillin kills bacteria by

cell wall

a structure outside the plasma membrane in some cells


the functions of a eukaryotic cell are managed by this


in a cell, the tangles of long strands of DNA form this

endoplasmic reticulum

the folded system of membranes that forms a network of interconnected compartments inside the cell


pigment - gives plants a green color


network of tiny rods and filaments that forms a framework for the cell


found in plants the structures that capture the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

transport proteins

make up the selectively permeable membrane that controls which molecules enter and leave the cell


short projections used for oarlike locomotion


in a cell, the breakdown of molecules in order to release energy occurs in this


an organism with a cell that lacks a true nucleus

plasma membrane

the movement of the materials into and out of the cells is controlled by this


the small, membrane-bound structures inside a cell


site of protein synthesis


cell structures that contain digestive enzymes


kingdom of one celled organisms with a nucleus


single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes


have characteristics of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. single celled algae with a flagellum- they can eat like a animal


the stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces spores


the stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells

what is the relationship between the sporophyte and gametophyte stages of some algae?

gametes fuse to form a zygote which is the diploid form that is called sporophyte

What triggers sexual reproduction in diatoms

have two shells of silica (glass) overlapping like the halves of a petri dish (Chrysophyta) when the two halves (boxes) separate, it triggers sexual reproduction

gonyaulax catanella, produces an extremely strong nerve toxin

what causes the dangerous red tides in the ocean?


what adaptation helps red algae to live in deep water?

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