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Terms in this set (2)

9.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

1) What is the nuclear symbol for a radioactive isotope of copper with a mass number of 60?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)


Answer: A


2) The product from the alpha decay of is ________.

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)


Answer: C


3) The nuclear symbol of helium, , is also the symbol for designating a (n)

A) proton.
B) neutron.
C) gamma ray.
D) beta particle.
E) alpha particle.


Answer: E



4) The symbol is a symbol used for a(n)

A) proton.
B) neutron.
C) gamma ray.
D) beta particle.
E) alpha particle.


Answer: D


5) Which of the following types of radiation has the highest energy?

A) α-particles
B) β-particles
C) γ-rays
D) visible light
E) All of these have the same energy.


Answer: C


6) The damaging effects of radiation on the body are a result of

A) the formation of unstable ions or radicals.
B) the formation of radioactive atoms in the body.
C) transmutation reactions in the body.
D) extensive damage to nerve cells.
E) the production of radioactive sodium ions in the body.


Answer: A



7) Which of the following is suitable as a minimum shielding for beta particles?

A) air
B) 1 m of water
C) gloves
D) 1 m of concrete
E) 1 cm of lead


Answer: C


8) For , there are

A) 85 protons and 38 neutrons.
B) 47 protons and 38 neutrons.
C) 38 protons and 47 neutrons.
D) 38 protons and 85 neutrons.
E) 85 protons and 47 neutrons.


Answer: C


9) Which is NOT a way to minimize your exposure to radiation?

A) wearing a lead apron
B) keeping a good distance
C) standing behind a thick concrete wall
D) wearing lead-lined gloves
E) staying a longer time


Answer: E



10) The process in which a nucleus spontaneously breaks down by emitting radiation is known as

A) transformation.
B) translation.
C) fusion.
D) a chain reaction.
E) radioactive decay.


Answer: E


11) A nuclear equation is balanced when

A) the same elements are found on both sides of the equation.
B) the sum of the mass numbers and the sum of the atomic numbers of the particles and atoms are the same on both sides of the equation.
C) the same particles and atoms are on both sides of the equation.
D) different particles and atoms are on both sides of the equation.
E) the charges of the particles and atoms are the same on both sides of the equation.


Answer: B


12) The nuclear reaction shown below is an example of what type of process?



A) fusion
B) fission
C) translation
D) alpha emission
E) beta emission


Answer: D



13) In the nuclear equation of a beta emitter,

A) the new nucleus contains 2 fewer protons.
B) the new nucleus contains 2 more protons.
C) the mass number of the new nucleus is 4 less than that of the original nucleus.
D) the new nucleus contains 1 more proton.
E) the new nucleus contains 1 less proton.


Answer: D


14) Nitrogen-17 is a beta emitter. What is the isotope produced in the radioactive decay?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)


Answer: E


15) The nuclear reaction



is an example of

A) fusion.
B) fission.
C) gamma emission.
D) alpha emission.
E) beta emission.


Answer: E



16) What is the radioactive particle released in the following nuclear equation?



A) alpha particle
B) beta particle
C) gamma ray
D) proton
E) neutron


Answer: B


17) What is the radioactive particle released in the following nuclear equation?



A) alpha particle
B) beta particle
C) gamma ray
D) proton
E) neutron


Answer: A


18) The nuclear symbol that completes the equation is a(n)



A) proton.
B) neutron.
C) gamma ray.
D) beta particle.
E) alpha particle.


Answer: E



19) The nuclear symbol that completes the equation is a(n)



A) proton.
B) neutron.
C) gamma ray.
D) beta particle.
E) alpha particle.


Answer: B


20) What is the radiation particle used in the bombardment of nitrogen-14?



A) alpha particle
B) beta particle
C) gamma ray
D) proton
E) neutron


Answer: E


21) When aluminum-27 is bombarded with a neutron, a gamma ray is emitted. What radioactive isotope is produced?

A) silicon-27
B) silicon-28
C) aluminum-28
D) magnesium-27
E) magnesium-28


Answer: C



22) The unit used to measure the amount of radiation absorbed by a gram of material is called the

A) rad.
B) RBE.
C) curie.
D) rem.
E) Bq.


Answer: A


23) A patient receives of iodine-131, which emits β-particles. If the factor that adjusts for biological damage is 1 for β-particles, how many rems did the patient receive?

A) 4
B) 0.4
C) 0.3
D) 2
E) 40


Answer: A


24) A patient receives 10 mrads of gamma radiation. If the factor that adjusts for biological damage for gamma radiation is 1, how many mrems did the patient receive?

A) 2 mrem
B) 5 mrem
C) 10 mrem
D) 20 mrem
E) 200 mrem


Answer: C



25) Why is it important that radioisotopes used in diagnostic tests have short half-lives?

A) These radioisotopes have a greater activity so they are easier to monitor.
B) This minimizes the harmful side effects of the radiation.
C) This is necessary so the radioisotopes will have high energy.
D) These radioisotopes are less expensive.
E) These radioisotopes are more abundant in nature.


Answer: B


26) A person begins to suffer radiation sickness at an exposure level of

A) 25 rem.
B) 5 rem.
C) 500 rem.
D) 100 rem.
E) 600 rem.


Answer: D


27) A positron is a particle emitted from the nucleus that has the same mass as a(n)

A) electron but has a positive charge.
B) neutron but has a positive charge.
C) alpha particle.
D) beta particle.
E) proton emitted from the nucleus.


Answer: A



28) An imaging technique in which a computer monitors the degree of absorption of X-ray beams is known as

A) positron emission tomography (PET).
B) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
C) computerized tomography (CT).
D) radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU).
E) a scan.


Answer: C


29) An imaging technique that detects the energy emitted by hydrogen atoms in a magnetic field is known as

A) positron emission tomography (PET).
B) computerized tomography (CT).
C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
D) radioactive tracer study.
E) supermagnetic tomography (SMT).


Answer: C


30) The dosage of technetium-99m for myocardial imaging is 280 μCi/kg of body weight. How many mCi should be given to a patient weighing 65 kg?

A) 0.0043 mCi
B) 4.3 mCi
C) 18 mCi
D) 230 mCi
E)


Answer: C



31) A patient receives 3.0 mL of a solution containing technetium-99m for a breast image. If the activity of the technetium-99m is 9.5 mCi/mL, what is the dose received by the patient?

A) 3.2 mCi
B) 29 mCi
C) 320 μCi
D) 9.5 mCi
E) 28.5 mCi


Answer: B


32) Sodium-24 has a half-life of 15 hours. How many hours is three half-lives?

A) 60 hours
B) 45 hours
C) 30 hours
D) 15 hours
E) 7.5 hours


Answer: B


33) The half-life of a radioisotope is

A) one-half of the time it takes for the radioisotope to completely decay to a nonradioactive isotope.
B) the time it takes for the radioisotope to become an isotope with one-half of the atomic weight of the original radioisotope.
C) the time it takes for the radioisotope to become an isotope with one-half the atomic number of the original radioisotope.
D) the time it takes for the radioisotope to lose one-half of its neutrons.
E) the time it takes for one-half of the sample to decay.


Answer: E



34) Iodine-123, which is used for diagnostic imaging in the thyroid, has a half-life of 13 hours. If 50.0 mg of I-123 were prepared at 8:00 A.M. on Monday, how many mg remain at 10:00 A.M. on the following day?

A) 50.0 mg
B) 25.0 mg
C) 12.5 mg
D) 6.25 mg
E) 3.13 mg


Answer: C


35) A wooden object from a prehistoric site has a carbon-14 activity of 10 counts per minute (cpm) compared to 40 cpm for new wood. If carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years, what is the age of the wood?

A) 1430 yr
B) 5730 yr
C) 11,500 yr
D) 17,200 yr
E) 22,900 yr


Answer: C


36) Krypton-79 has a half-life of 35 hours. How many half-lives have passed after 105 hours?

A) 1 half-life
B) 2 half-lives
C) 3 half-lives
D) 4 half-lives
E) 5 half-lives


Answer: C



37) The half-life of bromine-74 is 25 min. How much of a 4.0 mg sample is still active after 75 min?

A) 0.50 mg
B) 1.0 mg
C) 2.0 mg
D) 0.25 mg
E) 4.0 mg


Answer: A


38) When an atom of uranium-235 is bombarded with neutrons, it splits into smaller nuclei and produces a great amount of energy. This nuclear process is called

A) fission.
B) fusion.
C) decomposition.
D) chain reaction.
E) ionization.


Answer: A


39) In the sun, nuclei of hydrogen combine to form a larger nucleus and release a great amount of energy. The process is known as

A) fission.
B) fusion.
C) metathesis.
D) chain reaction.
E) ionization.


Answer: B



40) Gamma rays require the heaviest shielding of all the common types of nuclear radiation because gamma rays have the

A) highest energy.
B) most intense color.
C) lowest energy.
D) largest particles.
E) heaviest particles.


Answer: A


41) If absorbed internally, alpha particle emitters are the most damaging because alpha particles

A) have the largest charge.
B) have the greatest energy.
C) have the greatest mass.
D) consist of high energy electrons.
E) consist of pure energy.


Answer: C


42) Radium-226 decays by alpha emission to

A) barium-131.
B) cobalt-60.
C) carbon-14.
D) polonium-218.
E) radon-222.


Answer: E



43) A sample of cerium-141 for a diagnostic test was dissolved in saline solution to an activity of 4.5 millicuries/mL. If the patient undergoing the test needs a dose of 10 millicuries, how much of the solution should be injected into the patient?

A) 45 mL
B) .45 mL
C) 2.2 mL
D) 22 mL
E) 4.5 mL


Answer: C


44) The most widely used medical isotope in nuclear medicine is

A) Tc-99m.
B) I-131.
C) P-32.
D) I-125.
E) Co-60.


Answer: A


45) The recommended dosage of I-131 for a test is 4.2 microcuries per kg of body weight. How many millicuries should be given to a 55 kg patient? (1 mCi = 1000 μCi)

A) 230 millicuries
B) 0.23 millicuries
C) 0.076 millicuries
D) 760 millicuries
E) 13.8 millicuries


Answer: B



46) A radiation lab orders 64 μCi of P-32. After 42 days the activity of the sample is 8.0 μCi. What is the half-life of P-32?

A) 7 days
B) 14 days
C) 28 days
D) 42 days
E) 84 days


Answer: B


47) A sample of I-131 decays from 12 microcuries to 3.0 microcuries in 16 days. What is the half-life of I-131?

A) 16 days
B) 8 days
C) 32 days
D) 64 days
E) 4 days


Answer: B


48) One symptom of mild radiation sickness is

A) a lowered white cell count.
B) a raised white cell count.
C) a lowered red blood cell count.
D) a raised red blood cell count.
E) a white cell count of zero.


Answer: A



9.2 Short Answer Questions

1) One symbol for the β particle is . Another symbol for the same particle is ________.


Answer:


2) The common unit of radioactivity which is used to measure the biological damage is the ________.


Answer: rem


3) The radioisotope used as a diagnostic tool to measure thyroid function is ________.


Answer: I-131


4) The diagnostic imaging technique that depends on magnetic fields and radio waves, not radioactivity, is called ________.


Answer: MRI or magnetic resonance imaging


5) The time needed for a radioactive sample to decay to one-half of its original activity is called the ________.


Answer: half-life


6) There are ________ microcuries in one millicurie.


Answer: 1000



7) In alpha emission, the atomic number ________.


Answer: decreases by two


8) In beta emission, the atomic number ________.


Answer: increases by one


9) If a neutron is lost from a nucleus, the atomic number ________.


Answer: does not change


10)


Answer:


11) The radiation dose required to produce death in one-half of the exposed subject animals is termed the ________.


Answer: LD50


12)


Answer:


9.3 True/False Questions

1) Exposure to radiation is unavoidable because some radioactive elements occur naturally.
Answer: True



2) One symptom of radiation sickness is an increased production of red blood cells.
Answer: False


3) If the half-life of hydrogen-3 is 11.8 years, after two half-lives the radioactivity of a sample will be reduced to one-half of the original amount.
Answer: False


4) The correct symbol for hydrogen-3 is .
Answer: False


5) One mCi of a radioactive substance emits more radiation than one μCi of the same substance.
Answer: True


6) One type of radiation that is not used for medical procedures is the cosmic ray.
Answer: True


7) X rays are generated by the nucleus during radioactive decay.
Answer: False


8) Irradiation of food for sterilization is usually carried out using gamma irradiation.
Answer: True


9) During alpha emission, the atomic number decreases.
Answer: True


10) When beta particles are emitted, the atomic number decreases.
Answer: False


11) Nuclear fission as used in nuclear power plants produces radioactive waste with long half-lives.
Answer: True


12) The production of nitrogen-13 and a neutron from boron-10 by bombardment with a helium-4 nucleus is an example of radioactive decay.
Answer: False
9.4 Matching Questions

Indicate whether each of the following is characteristic of the fission or fusion process.

1) A large nucleus is split into smaller nuclei. A) fission
2) Very high temperatures must be achieved to initiate the reaction. B) fusion
3) This nuclear process provides the energy of the sun. C) both fission and fusion
4) This process produces radioactive by-products.
5) Large amounts of energy are released.
6) Two small nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus.


Answer:
1) A
2) B
3) B
4) A
5) C
6) B


Choose the type of radiation from Column 2 that best matches each item in Column 1.

7)
A) beta particle.
8)
B) proton.
9)
C) gamma ray.
10)
D)

11)
E) neutron


Answer:
7) D
8) A
9) C
10) B
11) E
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