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During adolescence, maturation of the ________ lags behind maturation of the ________.

frontal lobe; limbic system

A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is called

emerging adulthood.

Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be

the object of some teasing.

According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves

affirmation of self-defined ethical principles.

Branden is so apathetic about his occupational future that within two years of his high school graduation he had already been fired by four different employers. According to Erikson, Branden best illustrates

role confusion.

Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.


Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates a(n) _______ morality.


Adolescence is typically a time of

diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence.

When children grow up and leave home, mothers most frequently report feeling


Marie feels socially useful in her career as a financial investment advisor. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Marie experiences a sense of


The terminal decline phenomenon involves a decrease in mental ability that accompanies the approach of


Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults experience

positive emotions with less intensity and negative emotions with less intensity.

Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of

continuity or stages.

A cross-sectional study is one in which

different age groups are tested at the same time.

Identical twins with similar values and preferences are not very strongly attracted to one another's fiancés. This fact has been used to suggest that romantic attraction is influenced by

chance events.

An integrated understanding of successful aging in terms of appropriate nutrition, family support, and an optimistic outlook is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach.

To qualify for the office manager's job, 55-year-old Mariel must take a series of psychological tests. Her performance on the test of ________ is likely to be poorer than if she had taken it as a 25-year-old.

abstract reasoning

Most 20-year-olds outperform most 70-year-olds on video games due to age-related differences in

information-processing speed.

If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)

CS Conditioned Stimulus

The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by


After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of


Spontaneous recovery refers to the

Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished response

Tina's teacher reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her teacher best illustrate the importance of


To assess whether Mrs. W. had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a

Conditioned Stimulus

John B. Watson would have expressed the great disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept. True or False?


The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by ________________ and _________________________.


After getting a slight burn from the spark of a flickering campfire, Jane became afraid of getting close to lighted gas stoves. This illustrates the adaptive value of


Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This illustrates


A learned association between two stimuli is central to

Classical Conditioning

Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of

Instinctive Drift

Every Sunday morning, Arny quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)

Positive Reinforcer

On the first day of class, Professor W. tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.

Variable Intervable

Because Mr. B. demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. B. most clearly needs to be informed of the value of


A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)

Specified # of responses have been made

The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of

latent learning

Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a

negative punishment

The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.

Pavlov , Skinner

Pat and Mike sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Pat is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Mike is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Pat's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Mike's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.


Kids are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind.

mirror neurons

Socially responsive toddlers who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschoolers with a strong internalized conscience. This best illustrates the impact of

observational learning.

Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.


Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for

observational learning.

Who highlighted the importance of observational learning?


Jerry wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of


Allan learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting

prosocial behavior

David and Joey, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?

observational learning

Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to


The reduced imitative yawning displayed by people with autism is most directly related to their reduced levels of

mirror neuron activity.

Most experts view intelligence as a person's

ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations

The concept of a g factor implies that intelligence

is a single overall ability.

Melvin has been diagnosed as having savant syndrome, which means that he

is limited in mental ability but has one exceptional ability.

Don's intelligence scores were only average, but he has been enormously successful as a corporate manager. Psychologists Sternberg and Wagner would probably suggest that

Don's practical intelligence exceeds his academic intelligence.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between creativity and intelligence?

A certain level of intelligence is necessary but not sufficient for creativity.

Vanessa is a very creative sculptress. We would expect that Vanessa also

has a venturesome personality and is intrinsically motivated.

Gerardeen has superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for her friends and co-workers. John Mayer, Peter Salovey, and David Caruso would probably say that Gerardeen possesses a high degree of

emotional intelligence.

Which procedure is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie people's intelligence scores?

factor analysis

Managers who want to foster creativity in the workplace should try to increase the ________ of their employees.

intrinsic motivation

People who score high on intelligence tests exhibit

more neural plasticity and faster brain-wave responses to simple stimuli than do those with lower scores.

The sort of problem solving that demonstrates "school smarts" is what researchers have historically assessed in their tests of


Superior performance on an intelligence test is most likely to be indicative of

Sternberg's concept of analytical intelligence.

The lower region of the ________ lobe is a center for processing mathematical and special information.


Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to

identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes

To determine whether a child's intellectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the child's

mental age

Five-year-old Wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4-year-old. Wilbur's mental age is


Who would have been the LEAST enthusiastic about relying on eugenics for the improvement of human intellectual functioning?


For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as

mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.

Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called

aptitude tests.

A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.


Object assembly, picture arrangement, and block design are three performance subtests of the


If a test is standardized, this means that

a person's test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group.

Women scoring in the highest 25 percent on the Scottish national intelligence test at age 11 tended to ________ than those who scored in the lowest 25 percent.

live longer

Over the past 50 or so years, children with intellectual disabilities have increasingly been likely to

be mainstreamed into regular school classrooms.

Achievement tests are designed to

assess learned knowledge or skills.

Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing

role confusion.

A public initiation into adult responsibilities and status is called

a rite of passage/ the formal operational stage.

Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ________ in life and adult independence begins ________ in life.

later; earlier

Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?

male facial hair

Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.

secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics

Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.


The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect

gut-level intuitions.

Erikson suggested that the capacity to form close, loving relationships in young adulthood depended on

achieving a sense of identity

The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by

Erikson's psychosocial development theory

Everyone would agree that intelligence tests are "biased" in the sense that

test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.

Males are most likely to outnumber females in a class designed for high school students highly gifted in

math problem solving.

The heritability of intelligence refers to

the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors.

Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a

chess tournament.

Boys outnumber girls at the ________ levels of verbal fluency and at the ________ levels of mathematical problem-solving ability

low; high

The intelligence test scores of adopted children are LEAST likely to be positively correlated with the scores of their adoptive siblings during

early adulthood.

Babies in an Iranian orphanage suffered delayed intellectual development due to

a deprived environment.

Research suggests that women are more skilled than men at

interpreting others' facial expressions of emotion.

Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that

the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian children are higher than those of North American children.

Stereotype threat is most likely to depress female students' performance on a difficult ________ test and to depress male students' performance on a difficult ________ test.

math problem-solving; verbal fluency

Research on the determinants of intelligence indicates that

both genes and environment have some influence on intelligence scores.

The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence.


Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of the role of heredity in determining intelligence?

The IQ scores of identical twins raised separately are more similar than those of fraternal twins raised together.

Studies of adopted children and their biological and adoptive families demonstrate that with age, genetic influences on intelligence

become more apparent.

Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the text's position regarding the relative contribution of genes and environment in determining intelligence?

Both genes and life experiences significantly influence performance on intelligence tests.

Current estimates are that ________ percent of the total variation among intelligence scores can be attributed to genetic factors.

about 50

To say that the heritability of a trait is approximately 50 percent means

that of the variation in the trait within a group of people, 50 percent can be attributed to heredity.

Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of environment's role in intelligence?

Children moved from a deprived environment into an intellectually enriched one show gains in intellectual development.

Today's researchers have identified many different chromosomal regions important to intelligence. This indicates that intelligence is


Tony, age 50, plays baseball with much younger adults and is concerned that his teammates might consider his age to be a detriment to their game outcome. His concern actually undermines his athletic performance. This best illustrates the impact of

stereotype threat.

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