Chapter 15 - Societies and Empires of Africa
Terms in this set (79)
families organized in groups - members of the lineage believe they are descendants of a common ancestor - very loyal to each other
cultural groups in which authority is shared by lineages of equal power instead of being exercised by a central government
tracing ancestors through their father
tracing ancestors through their mother
A region of western North Africa, of the Mediterranean coastlands of what is now Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria.
Muslim reformers - An Islamic religious brotherhood that established an empire in North Africa and southern Spain in the 11th century A.D.
A group of Islamic reformers who overthrew the Almoravid dynasty and established an empire in North Africa and southern Spain in the 12th century A.D.
Cultural groups in which authority is shared by lineages of equal power instead of being exercised by a central government.
What are the Efe and provide details
1. forest dwellers - one of several hunting-gathering societies in Africa - a hunter-gathering, forest society
2. live in Ituri Forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire)
3. live in small groups - 10 to 100 members all of whom are related
4. each family occupies its own grass and brush shelter within a camp but they are rarely permanent
5. search for food makes them somewhat nomadic - so they collect few possessions and move a lot
6. women are gatherers
7. men and older boys are hunters (antelope and duikers)
8. older male - father/uncle serves as leader but does not give orders as a chief - settle arguments through group discussions
What was the Igbo
also called the Ibo - lived in southern Nigeria and lived in a stateless society. If a dispute arose with the Igbo Village, respected elders from different lineages settled the dispute
In Africa, how did society trace lineage?
how possessions and property were passed on and what groups individuals belong to
What does an age set system consist of?
young people within a region who are born during a certain time period. Each age set passes together through clearly identified life stages - ceremonies mark the passage to each new stage. They use the system to discipline, community service and teach leadership skills to their young.
Facts about Islamic Law
1. following law is a religious obligation
2. Muslims do not separate their personal life from their religious life
3. Islamic law regulations almost all areas of human life
What were the Berbers
1. Fiercely independent desert and mountain dwellers, inhabitants of North Africa
2. Two groups - Almoravids and Almohads
What was the main effect of Almohad Rule on the Maghrib?
while the Almohad Dynasty lasted just 100 years, it united the Maghrib under one rule for the first time
What is the chief means of social and political organization in African stateless societies?
What sorts of food do the Efe hunt and gather in the Ituri Forest?
Women gather roots, yams, mushrooms, and wild seeds. Men hunt duikers (small antelope), monkeys, and other mammals. They also trade honey, wild game, and other forest products for crops grown by farmers.
What different purposes does the age set system serve in African societies
Igbo use the age-set system to teach discipline, community service, and leadership skills to their young.
What role did Islam play in the political history of North Africa
African rulers were converted to Islam, who then based their government on Islamic law.
The original Almohads and Almoravids were both part of which group?
What was the main disagreement that the Almohads had with the Almoravids?
The Almohads criticized the Almoravids for moving away from the traditional practice of Islam.
How did the law help to unify Muslim Society?
Muslims don't separate their religious life from their personal life, and Islamic law regulates almost all areas of human life, therefore the law brought order to Muslim states.
In what ways are hunting-gathering societies and stateless societies similar?
There are respected elders, but disputes are settled in groups. Power amongst different families was balanced.
How did the rulers of Ghana grow rich?
By taxing the goods traders brought through their territory.
Who was Mali's first great ruler?
What is a true fact about Songhai?
It was an empire built through military conquest and expansion.
Why did the Hausa city-states never built an empire?
There was frequent fighting among the city-states.
The Portuguese sailed to Benin in the 1480s to...
Trade for ivory, leopard skin, and enslaved persons.
A West African kingdom that grew rich from taxing and controlling trade and that established an empire in the 9th-11th centuries A.D.
A West African empire that flourished from 1235 to the 1400s and grew rich from trade.
Mali's first great leader, who came to power by crushing a cruel, unpopular leader.
One of the African Muslim rulers who succeeded Sundiata, and is thought to be Sundiata's grandnephew.
A traveler and historian who traveled for 27 years, visiting most of the countries in the Islamic world.
A West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591.
A West African people who live in several city-states in what is now northern Nigeria.
A West African people who formed several kingdoms in what is now Benin and southern Nigeria.
A kingdom that arose out of Niger River delta in the 1300s and became a major West African state in the 1400
How did Ghana's gold-salt trade work?
Merchants met in trading cities, where they exchanged goods under watchful eye of the king's tax collector. Royal officials also made sure all traders weighed goods fairly and and did business according to law. Royal guards also provided protection from bandits.
How did Sunni Ali build an empire?
He built the empire though military conquest by building a professional army.
What form of government was typical of the Hausa city-states?
Rulers held great power over their subjects, but ministers and other officials acted to check this power. Each city-state had an army of horsemen.
Which of the two-the Yoruba or the people of Benin- had more influence on each other?
Benin influenced Yoruba because Yoruba rose out of Benin.
What are some of the similarities between the Hausa city-states and other city-states you have read about?
Rulers often depend on the work and production of their farmers and other workers.
What are some of the similarities between Sundiata and Mansa Musa?
They were both skilled military leaders who controlled the gold-salt trade.
The Swahili language is a mixture of Bantu language and
Why did the city-state of Kilwa become an important trading center?
It's location in relation to India and Southern Africa
The event that had the greatest effect on the growth of Islam in East Africa was?
The increase in trade and commerce.
Which city controlled trade routes and was the economic, political, and religious center of an empire built on the gold trade?
The name Mutapa came from a phrase meaning
An Arabic-influenced Bantu language that is spoken widely in eastern and central Africa.
Relating to a southern African empire established by Mutota in the 15th century A.D.
How did the Swahili language develop?
Bantu speakers and Arabs began to mingle and created the new language and people.
How was Islam introduced to East Africa?
Muslim traders introduced Islam to the East African coast, and the growth of commerce caused the religion to spread.
How did the people of Great Zimbabwe positively interact with their environment?
They brought farming and cattle raising to the land.
Compare the Portuguese who arrived in east Africa with the rulers of the Mutapa empire.
They both were interested in trade and power and often resorted to violence.
What were some of the effects of East African trade on different cultural groups?
Trade brought new culture, languages, and religion.
How is Swahili an example of cultural interaction?
Arabs and Africans mingled, married, and influenced each other to create the new Swahili language and people.
What were the earliest forms of African societies?
Hunting-Gathering Societies and Stateless Societies
How are issues resolved in a lineage stateless society?
Respected elders from different lineages solved problems.
What was happening in North Africa throughout the early and mid 600s?
Islam spread through both conquest and peace. African rulers began to convert to Islam and then based their government upon Islamic law.
Why is it hard to trade across the Sahara desert?
Harsh desert conditions, andonly camels could be used to transport merchandise.
Describe the Ghana Empire's trade system and its role in Ghana as an empire.
Merchants met in the trading cities. Merchants traded while being watched by tax collectors, who taxed all trade. Royal officials also ensured fair trade, and guards protected trade from bandits.
What factors contributed to the end of the Ghana Empire?
War disrupted the gold-salt trade, crippling the empire.
How did the Mali Empire begin? What kind of a leader was its first ruler?
The Mali people gained control of trade add became wealthy and powerful. Their first leader, Sundiata, was a great leader in both war and peace.
How did Europeans learn of Mali's wealth?
Through one of Mali's rulers, who went on a hajj and spread word about his kingdom.
What kind of leader was Mansa Musa?
He was like Sundiata, great in both peace and war.
What was important about Timbuktu?
It attracted Muslim judges, doctors, religious leaders, and scholars from far and wide to attend the outstanding mosques and universities built there.
What role did trade play for east coast African civilizations?
Muslim Arab and Persian traders
settled in the port cities. the Swahili language was created. Trade brought wealth and diversity to the east coast.
Where did the Swahili language come from?
Arabic blended with the Bantu language to create Swahili.
What were some of the main exports and uses for each export from Africa?
Weavers made cloth, and workers made iron tools.
What was life like for the rich in the coastal city-state of Kilwa?
Kilwa grew rich form trading and was soon the wealthiest, most powerful coastal city state.
How did the Portuguese come to interact with east coast African civilizations?
They saw the wealth of the coastal city-states and decided to conquer them.
How did the Portuguese treat East Africans?
They took over the ports and cities and used it for themselves.
What influence did Islam have on east African government and society?
Every town had a mosque. A Muslim sultan governed most cities, and most wealthy merchants and government officials were Muslim.
Where did Arab traders send African slaves and for what tasks?
They sent them to Aabia, Persia, and Iraq to do domestic tasks. Some were sent to India, were they became soldiers. Others worked on docks and ships at Muslim-controlled ports and as household servants in China.
What factors contributed to the rise of great Zimbabwe?
Gold trade, good land for farming and castle raising, and the land had economic advantages (trade routes).
What happened to great Zimbabwe?
It was abandoned for some unknown reason. There are theories such as cattle grazing had worn out the land, that farming had worn out the land, or that people had used up all the salt and timber.
What structures did the Great Zimbabwe civilization leave behind?
two complexes of stone buildings that once housed the royal palace of great Zimbabwe's rulers.
What is imperialism? How did it affect African countries? What are the long term effects of imperialism?
Imperialism is how a country increases its power by extending its power and influence over smaller countries, taking control over political and economic life. In Ghana, imperialism brought a new language, new leaders, roads and railways, schools and hospitals, and electricity. Some of the long term effects were the language, since the official language of Ghana is now English, and the roads and railways is has are because of imperialism.
name the twomways islam spread through africa
through north africa by conquest and south of the Shara through trade