are formally defined, standardized processes that involve day-to-day operations: accepting a return, placing an order, purchasing new raw materials, and so forth.
are flexible, informal, and adaptive processes that normally involve strategic and less specific managerial decisions and activities.
structured departmental process
is a structured process that exists to enable departmental employees to fulfill the charter, purpose, and goals of a particular organizational unit.
departmental information system
is an information system that exists to support a departmental process.
structured enterprise processes
are structured processes that span an organization and support activities in multiple departments.
structured interenterprise processes
are structured processes that span two or more independent organizations
structured interenterprise information systems
are information systems that support interenterprise processes.
organizations can improve the quality (efficiency and/or effectiveness) of a process in one of three ways:
change the process structure, change the process resource, change both
is a condition that exists when data are isolated in separated information systems. (for example, if an organization uses one information system for order processing and a second information system for customer service, the customer data are isolated in two separate systems. As a result, the customer service department might provide thousands of dollars of customer support to a customer who has only ordered a few hundred dollars of product.)
islands of automation
another term for information silo; it just means groups of information systems that operate in isolation from one other.
business process reengineering
the activity of altering and designing business processes to take advantage of new information systems
are predesigned procedures for using the software products, saved organizations from the expense, delays, and risks of business process reengineering.
customer relationship management (CRM) system
is a suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customer, from lead generation to customer service. every contact and transaction with the customer is recorded in the CRM database. vendors of CRM systems claim that using their products makes the organization customer-centric.
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
is a suite of applications called modules, a database, and a set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into single, consistent, computing platform.
is an information system based on ERP technology...these systems include the functions of CRM systems, but also incorporate accounting, manufacturing, inventory, and human resources applications.
enterprise application integration (EAI)
is a suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connect applications together.
EAI does the following:
it connects system "islands" via a new layer of software/system, it enables existing applications to communicate and share data, it provides integrated information, it leverages existing systems-leaving functional applications as it, but providing an integration layer over the top, it enables a gradual move to ERP.
is a computer program stored within the database that runs to keep the database consistent when certain conditions arise.
is a computer program stored in the database that is used to enforce business rules. an example of such a rule would be never to sell certain items at a discount.
some ERP vendors call the inherent processes that are defined in the ERP solution process blueprints.
these solutions contain program and database configuration files as well as process blueprints that apply to ERP implementations in specific industries.
service-oriented architecture (SOA)
is a software design philosophy in which activities are organized into modules of functionality called Web Services that are requested and delivered over the Internet using SOA standards.
which means that the methodology and location of the service is private. users of the service do not know how or where the service is performed, and they need not know.
is an encapsulated software service provided over the internet using standard protocols.
a service provider creates a service description, which
documents how to use the service, and publishes that description using a standardized language called web service description language (WSDL)
social media (SM)
is the use of information technology to support the sharing of content among networks and users.
social media enables people to
form communities, tribes, or hives, all of which are synonyms that refer to a group of people related by a common interest.
a social media information system (SMIS)
is an information system that supports the sharing of content among networks of users.
is some inducement, such as a prize or other reward, for passing the message along through the tiers.
social media sponsors
are companies and other organizations that choose to support a presence on one or more SM sites
social media application providers
are the companies that operate the SM sites. facebook, twitter, linkedin, and google are all SM application providers.
is data and responses to data that are contributed by users and SM sponsors. you provide the source content data for your FB site, and your friends provide response content when they write on your wall, make comments, tag you, or otherwise publish on your site.