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U.S. history Tidwell
Terms in this set (50)
loose constructionist and leading federalist; the first secretary of treasurer under Washington; proposes the first financial system for the U.S.
diplomat and one of the people responsible for purchasing Louisiana territory
Thomas Jefferson's vice president during his 1st term; arrested and tried for treason; shot Alexander Hamilton in a duel
military general and emperor of France; sold the Louisiana territory to Thomas Jefferson
1st chief justice of supreme court; Washington sends him to Great Britain to negotiate a treaty, Jay's treaty, that will settle differences between them, including paying for damaged ships the French impressed
first attorney general of the US
the most influential chief justice in the US; his decision in the Marbury vs Madison case shapes the US judicial system by creating judicial review
first secretary of war
Lewis and Clark
sent by Thomas Jefferson to lead a 2-year long expedition to explore the newly purchased Louisiana territory and discover a water route that connected from the gulf to the Pacific- does not exist; asked to study plants and animals to map out the land forms of the Louisiana territory; also make friendly relations with the Indians; greatest accomplishment outside of the Louisiana purchase during Jefferson's presidency
led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams; one of the nation's first political parties; supported a strong central gov
2nd political party that opposed federalist; wanted states to have more power; led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
states have the right to reject federal laws
Judiciary Act 1789
congress organized a judicial branch; had a 6-person supreme court with one chief justice and 5 associates; also set up district courts and circuit courts of appeal; gives supreme court the right to issue orders of mandamus (right to demand that someone gives something to someone else) as original jurisdiction
Kentucky and Virginia resolution
a response to the alien and sedition acts; idea that states have the right to nullification; made by Jefferson and Madison
farmer's objected to Hamilton's tax on Whiskey, so they attacked tax collectors and burned down barns of people who told the gov where whiskey was made
the situation between the US and France when 3 agents labeled XYZ of the French foreign minister attempted to negotiate and bribe with US delegates; the US delegates say no, word gets out, and people want the US to declare war on France
British policy of seizing Americans at sea and taking their goods or forcing them into the British navy
US settled the northern boundary disputes with Spain over Spanish Florida; Spain will give us the right of deposit in New Orleans- right to offload goods on the docks
Alien act of 1798
raise the number of years an alien has to live in the US to become citizens; gives president the authority to deport aliens without a trial
Sedition Act of 1798
made it illegal to criticize officials of the federal gov
group of advisers to the president- part of the executive branch; secretary of war defense, secretary of state, secretary of treasury, and attorney general
Bank of the United States
Alexander Hamilton's plan of an institution created to hold on to the federal gov's money and act as a lending agent when the government needed to borrow money
believed that all gov power was specifically granted in the Constitution
believes that Constitution allows actions that are not specifically mentioned- as long as they are not specifically prohibited
What departments made up President Washington's cabinet?
secretary of war and defense, secretary of state, secretary of treasury, and attorney general.
what was Hamilton's financial plan?
War Debt: the federal gov would take on state and national debt to pay of the American Revolution
Tariff: the gov should raise revenue by passing tariffs- tax on goods to raise money for gov
Finances: the US should create a national bank and a national mint to coin standardized currency
Creation of the Bank of the U.S: plan of an institution created to hold on to the federal gov's money and act as a lending agent when the government needed to borrow money
Why was Hamilton's financial plan controversial?
the southern states had already taken care of their debts; the constitution did not give the congress the power to take over the states debt; creation of a national bank was a tool for the wealthy and large business; would unfairly reward wealthy people who bought revolutionary war bonds from original bondholders; constitution did not give the gov the authority to create this institution
Why might an even number of Supreme Court Justices have led to problems?
There could be a tie where there was no deciding vote
What was the outcome of the first part of the French Revolution?
a revolutionary gov took over and limited the King's power and made France a constitutional monarchy or Republic
Why did President Washington issue the Neutrality Proclamation?
He believed the growth and prosperity of the US depended on staying neutral
How did the Neutrality Proclamation have a negative impact on the U.S.?
Our alliance with France will weaken because the French helped the US in the American Revolution, but the US didn't help them back; the US's 2 biggest allies and trade partners are at war with each other and the US can't pick sides; the war affects our trade and the British and French will seize American ships- impressment
How did the French Revolution eventually cause problems for the Democratic-Republicans?
they supported the revolution, thinking it would lead to the liberty and of France, but then the extremists in France who wanted a Republic took control and beheaded the royal family. People wanted to distance themselves from the Democratic-Republicans and the Democratic-Republicans of the US withdrew their support.
secretary of state during Washington's presidency
secretary of treasury during Washington's treasury
secretary of war during Washington's presidency
attorney general during Washington's presidency
What was a solution to the problems created by Hamilton's financial plans?
the creation of the Bank of the U.S.
war between the English and France in Europe that would cause President Washington to worry
Why was the French Revolution a problem for the U.S?
France and Great Britain were the US best trading partners and the US couldn't pick a side, so they remained neutral; this hurt their trade and the French and British started seizing their ships for goods- impressment
what were the problems in the Northwest Territories?
Americans were facing conflicts with Native Americans in northwest territories; general Anthony Wayne defeated the confederacy of Native Americans in the Battle of Fallen Timbers, and it ended with the Treaty of Greenville; Americans took most of the Indian's land
what was different about the 1796 election?
the constitution did not take in consideration of different political parties with Electoral votes, so they wound up having a federalist president and a democratic- republican vp
what were problems faced by Adams presidency?
XYZ affair, alien act, sedition act, and the Kentucky and Virginia resolution
what was different about the 1800 election?
first American election in which power passed from one political party to another; it was also a tied election; Jefferson and Burr had the same amount of electoral votes but the House of Reps chose Jefferson to be president
why was the 12th amendment created?
to ensure a tie in presidency would never happen again; it set up a separate ballot for presidents and vice presidents
What was Marbury VS Madison?
when the supreme court ruled that the constitution did not give the court power to make Madison deliver the commission; therefore, the law that gave the court that power- judiciary act- was unconstitutional; this case established the Supreme court's right to determine if a law is constitutional- known as judicial review
the Louisiana Purchase
when Jefferson purchased Louisiana from France; Jefferson had to consider his strict construction of the Constitution since it did not say he could buy new territory, but then Jefferson and his advisers decided the right to acquire territory was implicit in the constitutional power to make treaties
the war between France and Great Britian
also known as the Napoleonic Wars; US was in the middle; British and French ships would stop US merchant ships and began the policy of impressment; embargo act takes place- bans trade from the US and foreign countries so the British and French stop taking over their ships, but the US won't get the goods they need- people will go out of business; repealed the act and made a new one just banning trade from Britain and France
what were the causes of the War of 1812?
Napoleonic Wars, the impressment of US ships, conflicts over congress and the British helping the Native Americans fight against the US
treaty of Ghent
treaty in Belgium that ended the war of 1812; the British troops and agents in the northwest territory will withdrawal and be sent back to England; impressment will end
what were problems faced by Jefferson?
Marbury VS Madison, the Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark, war between Great Britain and France, War of 1812, and the treaty of Ghent