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Ch. 11 psych

STUDY
PLAY
stress
physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging
stressors
stress causing events
distress
occurs when people experience unpleasant stressors
eustress
the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being
acute stress disorder (ASD)
symptoms include anxiety, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, relive event in dream or flashback for as long as one month
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
when symptoms associated with ASD last for more than one month
Social Readjustment Rating scale (SRRS)
Holmes and Rahe created; a way for people to measure the amount of stress in a person's life by having that person add up the total "life change units" associated with each major event
hassles
daily annoyances
frustration
occurs when people are blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need
external frustrations
losses, rejections, failures, delays
internal frustrations (personal frustrations)
goal cannot be obtained because of internal or personal characteristics
persistence
the continuation of efforts to get around whatever is causing the frustration
frustration-aggression hypothesis
frustration creates an internal readiness to aggress but that aggressionwill not follow unless certain external cues are also present (Berkowitz)
displaced aggression
taking out one's aggression on less threatening, more available targets
approach-approach conflict
person experiences desire for two goals, each of which is attractive; choosing between two good things
avoidance-avoidance conflict
choice is between tow or more goals or events that are unpleasant
approach-avoidance conflict
choice between one goal or event, which has both positive and negative aspects that make the goal appealing and unappealing (i.e. getting married)
double approach-avoidance conflict
choice is between two goals that have both positive and negative elements (i.e buying a house in country or city)
multiple approach-avoidance conflicts
more than two goals to options to consider, making the decision even more difficult and stressful (i.e. college students deciding on a career)
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
the sequence of psychological reactions that the body goes through when adapting to a stressor; founded by Hans Selye; alarm, resistance, exhaustion
alarm
body first reacts to stressor, sympathetic nervous system is activated, hormones released
resistance
stress continues;body settles into sympathetic division activity, stage will continue until stressor ends or the organism has used up all its resources
exhaustion
when body's resources are gone, leads to stress related diseases or the death of the organism if outside help is unavailable
psychoneuroimmunology
concerns the study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thinking, and behavior on the immune system
natural killer cell
main function is the suppression of viruses and the destruction of tumor cells
Richard Lazarus
developed the cognitive-medical theory of emotions
cognitive-medical theory of emotions
the way people think about and appraise a stressor is a major factor in how stressful that particular stressor becomes
primary appraisal
involves estimating the severity of the stressor and classifying it as a threat, challenge, or a harm or loss that has already occurred
secondary appraisal
people who have identified a threat or harmful effect must estimate the resources that they have available for coping with the stressor
type A people
workaholics, competitive, ambitious, hate to waste time, find it difficult to relax; greater risk of heart disease
type B people
less competitive, easy going, relaxed, at peace; less risk of heart disease
type C people
pleasant, try to keep the peace, find it difficult to express emotions, internalize anger; characteristics strongly associated with cancer
Martin Seligman
social learning psychologist, developed the concept of learned helplessness, began positive psychological movement
downward social comparison
making one's self feel better by comparing it to someone with a less competent performance (optimists use)
alternative thinking
come up with alternative explanations for why bad things happened (optimists use)
hardy personality
coined by Suzanne Kobasa; type a people that thrive on stress, they are deeply committed, feel of being in control of life, interpret events as challenges
acculturative stress
stress resulting from the need to change and adapt to the dominant or majority culture
integration
individual tries to maintain a sense of the original cultural identity while also trying to for a positive relationship with members of the dominant culture; low stress
assimilation
minority person gives up the old cultural identity and completely adopts the majority culture's ways; moderate stress
separation
minority person rejects the majority culture's ways and tries to maintain the original cultural identity; fairly high stress
marginalized
neither maintaining contact with the original culture nor joining the majority group
problem-focused coping
when people try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through their own actions (i.e. can't understand a prof, ask a fellow student to clarify)
emotion-focused coping
changing the way a person feels or emotionally reacts to a stressor (share frustrations w/friend)
psychological defense mechanisms
unconscious distortions of the perception of reality; Anna Freud
concentrative meditation
goal is to focus the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus
receptive meditation
trying to expand consciousness outward