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physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging
acute stress disorder (ASD)
symptoms include anxiety, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, relive event in dream or flashback for as long as one month
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
when symptoms associated with ASD last for more than one month
Social Readjustment Rating scale (SRRS)
Holmes and Rahe created; a way for people to measure the amount of stress in a person's life by having that person add up the total "life change units" associated with each major event
occurs when people are blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need
internal frustrations (personal frustrations)
goal cannot be obtained because of internal or personal characteristics
frustration creates an internal readiness to aggress but that aggressionwill not follow unless certain external cues are also present (Berkowitz)
person experiences desire for two goals, each of which is attractive; choosing between two good things
choice between one goal or event, which has both positive and negative aspects that make the goal appealing and unappealing (i.e. getting married)
double approach-avoidance conflict
choice is between two goals that have both positive and negative elements (i.e buying a house in country or city)
multiple approach-avoidance conflicts
more than two goals to options to consider, making the decision even more difficult and stressful (i.e. college students deciding on a career)
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
the sequence of psychological reactions that the body goes through when adapting to a stressor; founded by Hans Selye; alarm, resistance, exhaustion
stress continues;body settles into sympathetic division activity, stage will continue until stressor ends or the organism has used up all its resources
when body's resources are gone, leads to stress related diseases or the death of the organism if outside help is unavailable
concerns the study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thinking, and behavior on the immune system
cognitive-medical theory of emotions
the way people think about and appraise a stressor is a major factor in how stressful that particular stressor becomes
involves estimating the severity of the stressor and classifying it as a threat, challenge, or a harm or loss that has already occurred
people who have identified a threat or harmful effect must estimate the resources that they have available for coping with the stressor
type A people
workaholics, competitive, ambitious, hate to waste time, find it difficult to relax; greater risk of heart disease
type C people
pleasant, try to keep the peace, find it difficult to express emotions, internalize anger; characteristics strongly associated with cancer
social learning psychologist, developed the concept of learned helplessness, began positive psychological movement
downward social comparison
making one's self feel better by comparing it to someone with a less competent performance (optimists use)
come up with alternative explanations for why bad things happened (optimists use)
coined by Suzanne Kobasa; type a people that thrive on stress, they are deeply committed, feel of being in control of life, interpret events as challenges
stress resulting from the need to change and adapt to the dominant or majority culture
individual tries to maintain a sense of the original cultural identity while also trying to for a positive relationship with members of the dominant culture; low stress
minority person gives up the old cultural identity and completely adopts the majority culture's ways; moderate stress
minority person rejects the majority culture's ways and tries to maintain the original cultural identity; fairly high stress
when people try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through their own actions (i.e. can't understand a prof, ask a fellow student to clarify)
changing the way a person feels or emotionally reacts to a stressor (share frustrations w/friend)
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