24 terms

Archaeological Anthropology

Final Exam Terms
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artifact frequency
how many of a certain type of artifact is found in a site
artifact style
the form shape and definition of an artifact
microwear analysis
microscopic studies of damage and polish on the edges of stone artifacts to reveal the materials that were worked
residue analysis
examines blood residue on stone tools.
experimental archaeology
ancient conditions are recreated so that an archaeologist can test a hypothesis
ethnographic analogy
comparison between ethnography and archaeology to explain the similarities
iconography
the study of a group of representative pictures or symbols
settlement pattern
distribution of homes, farms, villages, towns, and cities in an area
site features
the various attributes of a site, what the site has to offer building and set up wise
stratigraphy
the analysis of order and position of layers of archaeological remains
grave goods
food and/or other goods often valuable sometimes buried with deceased individuals
macro-botanical remains
non microscopic plant remains recovered from an archaeological site
palynology
study of pollen and spores
faunal remains
preserved animal remains recovered from an archaeological site.
stable isotope analysis
Analysis of the ratio of stable (nonradioactive) isotopes of elements such as carbon that provides information about ancient diet
strontium analysis
allows us to determine the diets of ancient cultures
seriation
arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume
electron spin resonance (ESR)
dating technique for heated crystalline,stones,calcites,bone,and shell
optically stimulated luminescence (OSL
: optical dating of ancient materialssuch as geological sediments, but also sometimes fired pottery, bricks
thermoluminescence (TL)
phosphorescence released by some previously irradiated substances when they are heated. The process is used by geologists and archaeologists to date rocks and pottery.
AMS radiocarbon
radioactive decay that dates wood charcoal bone carbonate
dendrochronology
The process of counting tree rings to determine the age of a tree
archaeomagnetism
based on magnetic North (moves) & South (stable location), sediment captures magnetic particles that are frozen in position towards North (material has to have BURNED already)
obsidian hydration
measures exposed layer of Obsidian to water in air, more H2O--thicker Obsidian layer (rate of hydration)