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First major battle of the Civil War and a victory for the South, it dispelled Northern illusions of swift victory. (481)
1862) Union General George B. McClellan's failed effort to seize Richmond, the Confederate Capital. Had McClellan taken Richmond and toppled the Confederacy, slavery would have most likely survived in the South for some time. (483)
Confederate ironclad whose successes against wooden ships signaled an end to wooden warships. They fought an historic, though inconsequential battle in 1862. (486)
Union ironclad, whose successes against wooden ships signaled an end to wooden warships. They fought an historic, though inconsequential battle in 1862. (486)
Second Battle of Bull Run
Civil War battle that ended in a decisive victory for Confederate General Robert E. Lee, who was emboldened to push further into the North. (487)
Battle of Antietam
(September 1862) Landmark battle in the Civil War that essentially ended in a draw but demonstrated the prowess of the Union army, forestalling foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. (487)
Declared all slaves in rebelling states to be free but did not affect slavery in non-rebelling Border States. The Proclamation closed the door on possible compromise with the South and encouraged thousands of Southern slaves to flee to Union lines. (487)
Constitutional amendment prohibiting all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude. Former Confederate States were required to ratify the amendment prior to gaining reentry into the Union. (489)
Battle of Fredericksburg
Decisive victory in Virginia for Confederate Robert E. Lee, who successfully repelled a Union attack on his lines. (492)
Battle of Gettysburg
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines. (492)
Abraham Lincoln's oft-quoted speech, delivered at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg battlefield. In the address, Lincoln framed the war as a means to uphold the values of liberty. (494)
Battle of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Key victory for Union General Ulysses S. Grant, it secured the North's hold on Kentucky and paved the way for Grant's attacks deeper into Tennessee. (495)
Battle of Shiloh
(April 1862) Bloody Civil War battle on the Tennessee-Mississippi border that resulted in the deaths of more than 23,000 soldiers and ended in a marginal Union victory. (495)
Siege of Vicksburg
Two and half month siege of a Confederate fort on the Mississippi River in Tennessee. Vicksburg finally fell to Ulysses S. Grant in July of 1863, giving the Union Army control of the Mississippi River and splitting the South in two. (495)
(1864-1865) Union General William Tecumseh Sherman's destructive march through Georgia. An early instance of "total war," purposely targeting infrastructure and civilian property to diminish morale and undercut the Confederate war effort. (497)
Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War
Established by Congress during the Civil War to oversee military affairs. Largely under the control of Radical Republicans, the committee agitated for a more vigorous war effort and actively pressed Lincoln on the issue of emancipation. (499)
Northern Democrats who obstructed the war effort attacking Abraham Lincoln, the draft and, after 1863, emancipation. (499)
The Man Without a Country
Edward Everett Hale's fictional account of a treasonous soldier's journeys in exile. The book was widely read in the North, inspiring greater devotion to the Union. (500)
A coalition party of pro-war Democrats and Republicans formed during the 1864 election to defeat anti-war Northern Democrats. (500)
(1864-1865) A series of brutal clashes between Ulysses S. Grant's and Robert E. Lee's armies in Virginia, leading up to Grant's capture of Richmond in April of 1865. Having lost Richmond, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. (502)
Site where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in April 1865 after almost a year of brutal fighting throughout Virginia in the "Wilderness Campaign". (503)
Reform Bill of 1867
Granted suffrage to all male British citizens, dramatically expanding the electorate. The success of the American democratic experiment, reinforced by the Union victory in the Civil War, was used as one of the arguments in favor of the Bill. (509)
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Chronically underestimated force of confederate army, leading to failure of Peninsula Campaign
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Union general with brief but successful career in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the East.
United States general in the American Civil War who was defeated by Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Fredericksburg (1824-1881)
United States general in the Union Army who was defeated at Chancellorsville by Robert E. Lee (1814-1879), Commanded the Union Army of the Potomac at Chancellorsville.
This man was the leader of the Union forces when they met with Lee's army in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where the most famous Civil War battle took place.
U.S. Army officer who became a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He is best remembered for his participation in the futile and bloody assault at the Battle of Gettysburg that bears his name, Pickett's Charge.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (1820-1891)
Overambitious Secretary of the Treasury who lost presidential nomination to Lincoln; Lincoln appoints him to Supreme Court Justice
Clement L. Vallandigham
Prominent Copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the Confederacy
John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
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