apush test ch 1 & ch 2
Terms in this set (86)
legal system by which the Spanish crown attempted to define the status of the Indian population in its American colonies by enslaving them, claiming that it had to do with christian practice
-granted exclusive rights to Britain to sell slaves in the Spanish Indies
-resulted after indians were dying from diseases
-gave permission to enslave africans
Land Bridge a bridge between two larger pieces of land formed by a small strip of land and is often temporary
(The Bering Land Bridge connects Eurasia and North America in the area of the present-day Bering Sea between Siberia and Alaska.)
Woodland tribes that lived in multistoried buildings; evolved in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys; mound-builders; supported by hunting, fishing, agriculture, permanent settlements
Hokokam, Anasazi & Pueblos
Hokokam: The people built irrigation canals that enabled them to grow two crops a year in the arid environment. They built permanent towns, some of which joined confederations which linked the towns by canals. The central village in each confederation coordinated labor, trade, religion, and political life. The Hohokam culture drew extensively on Mesoamerican ideas and materials.
Anasazi/Pueblo: The Anasazi culture originated in the first century B.C in the Four Corners of the US. The people harvested crops, lived in permanent villages, and made pottery. They became the most powerful people in the southwest. The advanced architecture is still used in Pueblo Indian culture in the southwest. The demise of the Anasazi people was drought.
Woodland mound builders
This refers to the prehistoric inhabitants of North America who constructed different styles of earthen mounds for burial, residential, and ceremonial purposes. They primarily built burial grounds with grave goods
(In the Eastern Woodland tribes, the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississipian groups are also referred to as mound-builder groups)
Lakota means allies. Sioux tribes that drifted westward across the Missouri river. They were nomadic living in tepees and hunting buffalo. They perceived God as a "series of powers pervading the universe". They integrated a trade system into their way of life.
The Maya were inhabitants of the Yucatan Peninsula whose civilization was at it's height from AD 300 to AD 900. Their civilization included a unique system of writing, math, architecture, and astronomy.
Incas a tribe in the Cusco area, where the legendary first Sapa Inca Manco Capac founded the Kingdom of Cusco around 1200. Under the leadership of the descendants of Manco Capac, the state grew as it absorbed other Andean communities at that time. It was in 1442, when the Incas began a far reaching expansion under the command of Pachacutec, whose name literally meant earth-shaker. He formed the Inca empire (Tawantinsuyu), that would become the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
The Aztecs were inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico who founded their capital, Tenochtitlan, in the early fourteenth century. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish, the Aztecs built a large empire in which they dominated many neighboring peoples. Their civilization included engineering, math, art and music
a Spanish soldier, explorer, and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquest of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. Notice that the term is not used for the Portuguese explorers and conquerors of Brazil, such as the Bandeirantes.
(1485-December 2, 1547) was a Spanish conquistador who initiated the conquest of the Aztec Empire on behalf of Charles V, king of Castile and Holy Roman Emperor, in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru
Francisco Pizarro revealed to Europe the Inca's wealth and opened the way for more advances into South America
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
During the Renaissance Europeans made many technical advances by improving the inventions of others, such as the sailing compass which was adopted from Arab merchants who learned about it from the Chinese.
Invented in the 1450s, aided the spread of knowledge across Europe
Ferdinand & Isabella
Two of the largest kingdoms in the area that will be Spain were united when Isabella (Queen of Castile) and Ferdinand (King of Aragon) married in 1469. In 1492 they funded claimed all of Spain and funded Columbus' voyage
In the early 1500s some Christians revolted against the authority of the pope in Rome which caused people to want to spread their own versions of Christianity to Africa, Asia, and the Americas
Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal. Sponsored voyages that opened up a long sea route around Africa's Cape of Good Hope to India
Columbus was an Italian mariner who sailed for Spain in 1492 in search of a western route to Asia. He located San Salvador in the West Indies, opening the Americas to European exploration and colonization.
Treaty of Torsedillas
Treaty between Spain and Portugal that located the Line of Demarcation 370 leagues west of the Azores. It expanded the principle of "spheres of influence".
Since ancient time people enslaved people captured in wars. In the 15th century the Portuguese began trading slaves from West Africa to sugar plantations. That worked so well that they used the system from there for in the colonies in the Americas
Enormous multiethnic empires were breaking up and small kingdoms were uniting into larger ones, creating nation-states
It was with Algonquin tribes with which the initial English settlers interacted with at Jamestown; Specifically the Powhatan Indians which included the Pequot and Narragansett tribes. While many of these tribes had little in common, they shared a common language. Generally found in the New England area, the Algonquin tribes fished and hunted in addition to the cultivation of crops. Several Powhatan confederacies proved to be able to resist early westerly movement by the English settlers in New England and Virginia.
powerful indian confederation that dominated New york and the eastern Great Lakes area; comprised of several peoples (not the Algonquians)
explored the northeast coast of North America in 1497 and 1498, claiming Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Grand Banks for England.
Jacque Cartier (1491-September 1, 1557) was a French navigator and explorer who first described and mapped the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named Canada.
Samuel de Champlain
(c. 1580 - 1635) the "father of New France," was born into a Protestant family around 1580 in the Province of Saintonge, lived when young in the town of Brouage, a seaport on France's west coast and made a journey through Canada before, he died in 1635 in Québec. A sailor, he also came to be respected as a talented navigator, a cartographer, and the founder of Quebec City. He was also integral in opening North America to French trade, especially the fur trade.
The english explorer who sailed for the dutch and explored the rivers and bay in the new york area from 1609-1611
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish missionary who condemned Spanish colonial policies toward Native Americans. He described atrocities in his book, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies.
Concerned the treatment of natives of the New World. It concerned two main attitudes towards the conquest of the Americas. Bartolomé de las Casas argued Amerindians were creations of God and deserved same treatment as Christian Europeans. Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda thought that the natives should be slaves because of their crimes against nature and against God.
Juan Gines de Spulveda
thought that the natives should be slaves because of their crimes against nature and against God; thought they were barbaric and inhuman; argued against Bartolomé de Las Casas in Valladolid Debate
people pay off ticket to new world with labor; ideally would be given land and whatever needed to get started, however would be given rocky, non-fertile land; poor health; allowed to die by owners; even if make it to freedom it's hard
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico. Cortes intermarried with the surviving Indians of the Aztec civilization.
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
priviledge given by Spain to Spanish settlers in the Americas which allowed to control the lands and people of a certain territory
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Protestant Reformation Popé/Pueblo
This was a religious rebellion against the Roman Catholic Church that began in 1517 when Martin Luther posted his ninety-five theses on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Revolt of 1680
Pueblo Indians revolt against and kill Spanish settlers and destroy every Catholic church in the area. It takes nearly 50 years for the Spanish to regain control.
Economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought, colonies should benefit the mother country
Yeoman and gentry
y: a servant, attendant, or subordinate official in a royal or other great household.
g: an upper or ruling class; aristocracy.
in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14, 1607. It is commonly regarded as the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following several earlier failed attempts. It was founded by Captain John Smith. It became the first capital of the Colony for 92 years, until 1699, when it was relocated to Williamsburg
Ownership of human beings; a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought as sold like property.
Acts of trade and Navigation
the were a series of laws which limited foreign trade in the colonies as well as the use of foreign ships starting in 1651.
The Mayflower was the ship that carried the Pilgrims across the Atlantic from the Netherlands to Plymouth Plantation in 1620 (the Pilgrims had fled England to the Netherlands before heading to the New World).
The pilgrims were a form of purtitan (separatists) who wanted to completely break away from the church of England. They emigrated to the Americas on the Mayflower to find safe haven, after negotiating for rights with the Virginia company.
(12 January 1587/8 - 26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629 and was elected their governor on April 8, 1630. Between 1639 and 1648 he was voted out of governorship and re-elected a total of 12 times.
Jamestown was funded by a joint-stock company: Company owned by all the people who have shares in it.
Roger Wiliams and Anne Hutchinson
-Williams was an English cleric in America who was expelled from Massachusetts for his criticism of Puritan policies. He founded Providence Plantation, a community based on religious freedom and obtained a charter for Rhode Island in 1644.
-Hutchinson was an English-born American colonist and religious leader who was banished from Boston for her religious beliefs, which included an emphasis on an individual's direct communication with God.
Metacom's ("King Philip's") Rebellion
Metacom, aka King Phillip, joined together the Native American tribes to fight the colonists, a war that lasted from 1675 to 1676
Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore
was the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland
Act of Toleration (1649)
statute in Maryland that permitted all forms of Christian worship (Protestant, Catholic, etc.), but atheists and Jews were still executed; passed in 1649 by local representative assembly
Founded by Roger Williams (1636), in Providence, Native Americans were dealt with fairly in buying land and religious freedom was extended to all.
In 1644, Parliment granted Roger Williams a charter, joining Providence and Portsmouth into Rhode Island.
People could now take part in church services and activities without making a formal commitment to Christ (1660)
Caused by: The next generation of colonists were less commited to religious faith, but churches still needed members
Members of the Religious Society of Friends who believed in the equality of men and women, nonviolence, and resistance to military service. Were often persecuted.
Penn was a Quaker leader who obtained a charter for Pennsylvania from Charles II in exchange for a debt owed to Penn's father. Penn intended to establish a model society based on religious freedom and peaceful relations with Native Americans in addition to benefiting financially from the sale of the land.
These plantations grew food for the West Indies, and relied on slave labor. Found in South Carolina.
John Rolfe began planting tobacco in virginia. Many were willing to buy so growing tobacco became very popular up and down the James. This pressured the colonists to expand their territory because a lot of land is needed for growing tobacco to grow large amounts and because tobacco exhausted the soil. The need for land made Europeans move more inward away from the center of European settlement, which was going in to the native's land. Tobacco quickly became the most valuable crop. By 1616 tobacco was profitless due to overproduction.
Smith was an English colonist, explorer, and writer. His maps and accounts of his exploration in Virginia and New England were invaluable to later explorers and colonists.
John Rolfe (1585-1622) was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy.
daughter of Powhatan; saved John Smith from his captors; her marriage to John Rolfe sealed peace agreement of First Anglo-Powhatan War
Puritans vs Pilgrims
puritan: any person seeking "purity" of worship and doctrine
a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or "separation" of their land or region from the country that governs them.
the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was drafted by the Pilgrims who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower, seeking religious freedom. It was signed on November 11, 1620
• pilgrims/separatists who openly wanted complete separation from english church
• led by William Bradford
• Mayflower Compact-have control over own gov.
• small settlement, very pious
•eventually joined MA colony
• moderate puritains sought to reform the church from within
• had support from parliment, but Charles I dismissed parliment in 1626
• anti-puritan archbishop persecuted them
• 1629, Puritans got a charter from MA Bay company
• 1,000 puritans come in the ships, more turmoil in England caused great migration (1630's)
Virginia struggled with economic problems, a rebellion against the colonial government, and labor shortages (late 1700's)
Led a group of Boston Puritans dissatified with the Massachusetts Bay colony. Founded Hartford (1636), which is now Connecticut.
Founder of New Haven (1637)
royal charter for a proprietary colony, founded the first settlement, Savannah, in 1733; acted as colony
tribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Phillip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. Over time, the name came to represent the entire official legislative body of the Colony of Virginia, and later, after the American Revolution, the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia.In Britain, the term "burgess" had referred to a Parliamentary representative, as of a borough.
Sir William Berkeley
the ineffectual governor of Virginia who wouldn't protect farmers on the border, and wouldn't expand the territory. Almost overthrown by Bacon.
Bacon's Rebellion was a colonial revolt led by Nathaniel Bacon, in which landless freeman attacked neighboring Indians and burned Jamestown in an attempt to gain land and greater participation in the Virginia government.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)
First constitution in written history (1639). Established a representative government made up of a legislature elected by the people and a governor chosen by the legislature.
The first joint-stock company in the colonies; founded Jamestown; promised gold, conversion of Indian to Christianity, and passage to the Indies
basically, the colonies could only trade with England, and only ship goods on colonist or English ships.
This helped the shipbuilding industry, and helped protect the colonists, but farmers received low prices for their goods and colonists had to pay high prices for manufactured goods.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Sir Edmund Andros
Sent from England to govern the dominion; was very unpopular due to increase of taxes, limiting town meetings, and revoking land titles
The Glorious Revolution was an English revolution against the authoritarian policies and Catholicism of James II. James was forced into exile and his daughter and her husband William Orange took the throne. The revolution secured the dominance of Parliament over royal power.
a poor person obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training.
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
A series of triangular trade routes that carried British manufactured goods to Africa and the Colonies, Colonial products (like tobacco, indigo, sugar, and rice) to Europe, and Slaves from Africa to the New World. Northern Colonies participated in this trade too by shipping slaves south.
Part of the Triangle Trade
Africans were transported to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar and tobacco.