LifeSmart: Exploring Human Development

Chapter Six Vocabulary
Process by which speed of information traveling though nervous system increases, due to a fatty layer of cells on nerve cells in the brain
Gross Motor Skills
Large muscle skills resulting from physical development enabling children to perform smooth and coordinated physical acts
Fine Motor Skills
Small muscle skills involving hands and fingers that result from physical development
Preoperational Period
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, extending from about 2 to 7 years
A child's application of abstract thinking during the preoperational period
Children's preoperational activity in which they consider inanimate objects to possess human thought, feelings, and actions
Deferred Imitation
Children's preoperational behavior that continues after they witnessed the original action or event
Symbolic Play
Children's mental representation of an object or event and reenactment of it in their play; one object may represent a different object in the play
Piaget's term for the child's focus on self in early phases of cognitive development
Feature of preoperational thought; the centering of attention on one aspect of an object and the neglecting of any other features
Ability to group objects with some similarities within a larger category
The understanding that an object retains certain properties even though surface features change
A cognitive act in which a child recognizes that she can use stages of reasoning to solve a problem and then trace the steps back to the original questions or premise
The belief that children create, organize, and transform knowledge through active engagement in their environment
Social Constructivism
The belief that children construct knowledge through social interactions
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The range of ability a child possesses on a given task, from working independently to working with assistance from adults or older chlidren
The systematic use of support to assist a child in his or her performance on a given task
Mnemonic strategy that entails discovering and imposing and easy-to-remember structure on items to be memorized
Memory strategy that enables obtaining information from memory; includes recognition and recall
Theory of Mind
Children's understanding of their own thoughts and mental processes
Constructivist Approach
Learning approach in which children are encouraged to be active participants in constructing knowledge and learn by interacting with their environment
Sensitive Periods
Montessori's term for periods of children's development marked by sensitivity/readiness to learn
Head Start
Government-supported early childhood program that provides education, health, and parenting education services to low-income families
Receptive Language
The ability of the child to understand written and spoken language
Expressive Language
The language children use to express their ideas and needs
A language irregularity in which children apply a word in a broad manner to objects that do not fit
Children's strict application of language rules they have learned
Authoritarian Parenting
Baumrind's term for parents who are demanding and want immediate obedience as the most desirable trait in a child
Authoritative Parenting
Baumrind's term for parents who respond to their child's needs and wishes; they believe in parental control and attempt to explain the reasons for it to their child
Permissive Parenting
Baumrind's term for parents who take a tolerant, accepting view of their child's behavior and rarely make demands or use punishment
Uninvolved/Neglectful Parenting
Term for parents who are undemanding and emotionally unsupportive of their child
Sibling Underworld
Familial subsystem, or coalition, of brothers and/or sisters
Day Care
Services and care for children provided outside the children's home
Biological maleness or femaleness
Social/psychological aspects of being male of female
Gender Identity
The conviction that one is either male or female
Gender Stereotypes
Rigid beliefs about characteristics of males and females
Gender Role
Culturally defined expectations about how females and males should act
Sex Cleavage
Youngsters of the same sex tend to play and do things together
Activity people engage in because they enjoy it for its own sake