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psych ch 2 & 9
Terms in this set (84)
The specialized branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems; also called biopsychology or psychobiology.
The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
A highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell.
The type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs.
The type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract.
The type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next.
The part of a cell that processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma
The multiple short fibers that extend from a neuron's cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells.
The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas.
glial cells or glia
The support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; glial cells manufacture myelin
remove waste products from the nervous system, including dead and damaged neurons
provide connections between neurons and blood vessels.
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed.
multiple sclerosis (MS)
a disease that involves the degeneration of patches of the myelin sheath. This degeneration causes the transmission of neural messages to be slowed or interrupted, resulting in disturbances in sensation and movement. Muscle weakness, loss of coordination, and speech and visual disturbances are some of the symptoms
A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
The state in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives sufficient stimulation.
The point of communication between two neurons.
The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
The branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
The tiny pouches or sacs in axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
Chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron.
The process through which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect adjoining neurons.
The process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a post-synaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by a presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again.
Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contractions and is involved in learning and memory.
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations.
Neurotransmitter involved in sensory perceptions, sleep, and emotions.
Neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and regulation of sleep; also a hormone manufactured by adrenal glands.
Neurotransmitter that usually communicates an excitatory message.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Neurotransmitter that usually communicates an inhibitory message.
Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions.
Drug or other chemical substance that binds to a receptor site and triggers a response in the cell.
A drug or other chemical substance that blocks a receptor site and inhibits or prevents a response in the receiving cell.
The primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Bundles of neuron axons that carry information in the peripheral nervous system.
central nervous system (CNS)
The division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Simple, automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord.
autonomic nervous system
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
sympathetic nervous system
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
parasympathetic nervous system
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body's physical resources
The system of glands, located throughout the body, that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrine glands
The endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones affecting the function of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes.
Hormone involved in reproduction, social motivation, and social behavior.
The pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response.
The outer portion of the adrenal glands.
The inner portion of the adrenal glands, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
The endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes; ovaries in females and testes in males.
A pseudoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, and intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain; also called localization of function.
critical for motor aspects of speech production
speech/language comprehension and grammatical phrasing (would sound like nonsense)
lateralization of function
The notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain.
The partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language because of brain injury or damage.
A surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum.
responsible for mostly language
The brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
The brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences.
The development of new neurons.
A region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain.
A region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functions.
A hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing and circulation.
A hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body.
A large, two-sided hindbrain structure at the back of the brain; responsible for muscle coordination and maintaining posture and equilibrium.
A network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate attention, arousal, and sleep; also called the reticular activating system.
The middle and smallest brain region, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information.
The largest and most complex brain region, which contains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes; also called the cerebrum.
The wrinkled outer portion of the forebrain, which contains the most sophisticated brain centers.
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, near the temples, that is the primary receiving area for auditory information.
An area at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for visual information.
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex located above the temporal lobe that processes somatic sensations.
processes voluntary muscle movements and is involved in thinking, planning, and emotional control.
A group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory.
A curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new memories.
A forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all senses except smell, relaying that information to the cerebral cortex.
regulates behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity.
An almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the brain's temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional responses, especially fear.
The first two weeks of prenatal development.
The second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week through the eighth week.
Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformations or defects in an embryo or fetus.
Undifferentiated cells that can divide and give rise to cells that can develop into any one of the body's different cell types.
The third and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week until birth.
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