41 terms

BJU World Studies, 3rd Edition - Chapter 6

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Renaissance
means "rebirth", revival of learning, the revival of learning and culture-began in Italy
Johannes Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468), The European inventor of the printing press, which allowed books to be printed quickly and economically. He used his invention to print copies of the Bible. This innovation aided the spread of Renaissance and Reformation ideas throughout Europe.
anatomy
structures of humans, animals, and plants. Used for realistic art.
shading
in Renaissance art, used darker darker parts to show dimension
perspective
ability to give depth to painting. Involved some math., The appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
The Last Supper
title of da Vinci's painting of Jesus's last supper with disciples, painting by Leonardo da Vinci; a study in the art and science of perspective
Mona Lisa
A painting by Leonardo da Vinci of a woman with a mysterious smile. It is now of the most readily recognized paintings in the world.
Michaelangelo
painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome
Sistine Chapel
located in Rome, has a famous ceiling painted by Michaelangelo
Ghiberti
made beautiful bronze doors on the baptistery of Florence., The Italian sculptor and goldsmith who was best known for the doors to the baptistery of Florence's cathedral, and another set of doors which was called "The Gates to Paradise". He also wrote one of the earliest autobiographies by an artist, which is crucial to those studying the art and culture of the time (1378-1455).
Brunelleschi
Renaissance architect that designed the dome for the Cathedral of Florence; rejected Gothic style, Italian architect celebrated for his work during the Florentine Renaissance. His greatest achievement is the octagonal ribbed dome of the Florence cathedral.
humanities
renaissance subjects including human interests and experiences, literature, philosophy, art, history, grammar, and speech.
Petrarch
Father of Humanism, author, Italian, "Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura"
Father of Humanism
Petrarch's nickname
Castiglione
Italian author, wrote The Courtier, a Renaissance book on manners
Machiavelli
Italian, author of The Prince, wrote about politics, Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Erasmus
man who published the first Greek New Testament on a moveable type press; helped the Reformation but stayed Catholic; wrote "In Praise of Folly"
Thomas More
English official under King Henry VIII; wrote book called Utopia about an imaginary country, rejected Reformation, supported supremacy of the Pope
transubstantiation
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
inquisition
a court set up to find and punish heretics (someone going against the Catholic Church),
indulgences
papers that grant pardon from the punishment of sin, Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
John Wycliffe
produced the first Bible in English, Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Martin Luther
Author of the Ninety-five Theses, leader of the Reformation; led to salvation by Romans 1:17, "The just shall live by faith"; translated the Bible into German
Ninety-five Theses
Document written by Martin Luther and posted on a church door in Germany that listed 95 things that Luther saw wrong with the church
excommunication
the act of dismissing someone from the Catholic Church, denies a person salvation
Zwingli
a Reformer from the German-speaking part of Switzerland, Leader of Swiss Reformation. Agreed to disagree with Luther about communion. He thought it was only a symbol, and that it wasn't Christ's body or blood untill it touched your mouth, only symbolic. Found on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War wounded and the Lutherans found him, cut him up into little pieces, then burn them and scattered the ashes over the land. Luther said Zwingli got what he deserved.
John Calvin
born in France, a leader in the Reformation - John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
predestination
the idea that God decides a person's destiny before birth, (theology) being determined in advance
Jesuits
Catholic monastic order (group) founded to stop the spread of the Reformation, Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Index of Prohibited Books
a group of books the Catholic church banned as heretical, A weapon of the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church; this documented books that disagreed with or criticized the Church. There was an early one issued by Pope Paul IV and another from the Council of Trent. This was supposed to protect people from immoral or incorrect theological works, but included scientific writing.
Council of Trent
a meeting of Catholic church officials in reaction to the Reformation, The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Huguenots
French Protestants influenced by John Calvin, French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Thirty-Year's War
War between Catholic and Protestant Religions
The Edict of Nantes
document issued by Henry of Navarre that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots in France, recognized Huguenot religious freedoms and rights of Protestants to participate in French public institutions, and was promulgated by Henry IV and provided for religious toleration in England.
Protestants
reformers who protested some practices of the Catholic Church; the term came from Germany
Anabaptist
rejected infant baptism and believed that a person should choose their own faith.
Leo X
Pope who authorized the sale of indulgences, the pope who excommunicated Martin Luther and who in 1521 bestowed on Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith (1475-1521)
Lorenzo de Medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli
John Huss
Reformer born in Bohemia; influenced by Wycliffe; burned at stake by Roman Church for his teachings against that church, Bohemian scholar who taught that the Bible was the final authority for Christian life
recant
means to "take back" what one has written, formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure