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70 terms

AP 2 Exam III

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Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
lipids
The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their tonsillectomy (surgical removal) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
palatine
Mechanisms of the second line of defense:
leukocytes and macrophages
antimicrobial proteins
inflamation
fever
complement system
natural killer cells
______________ antiparasitic WBC, release histamines, promotes allergies
eosinophils
___________ most numerous phagocytes, produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).
neutrophils
________________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.
interferons
A pyrogen is a substance that causes
fever
Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called ____________.
heparin histamine
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that
immunity response is directed against a particular pathogen or antigen
Vaccination stimulates which type of immunity?
artificial active immunity
T cells achieve immunocompetence in which location?
thymus
T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means
they multiply and form clones of identical Tcells programmed to respond to a particular antigen
The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates which type of immunity?
artificial passive immunity
Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)
MHC protein
Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in
lymph nodes
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like a natural killer (NK) cell because they both
secrete perforin and granzymes
Functions of Antibodies
to render antigens harmless
neutralization
complement fixation
agglutination
precipitation
neutralization
antibodies mask pathogenic region of antigen
Complement fixation
antigen binds to IgM or IgG, antibody changes shape, initiates complement binding; primary defense against foreign cells, bacteria
Agglutination
antibody has 2-10 binding sites; binds to multiple enemy cells immobilizing them
Precipitation
antibody binds antigen molecules (not cells); creates antigen-antibody complex that precipitates, phagocytized by eosinophil
Correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response.
antigen recognition
antigen presentation
clonal selection
differentiation
attack
Each immunoglobulin (Ig) has (how many?) __________ antigen-bonding site(s).
two
Which type constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma?
IgG
This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn.
IgA
This is the class of immunoglobulin is the most prevalent during the first exposure to the Ag.
IgM
This is the class of immunoglobulin that is involved in allergic reaction.
IgE
Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into
plasma cells
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly which cells?
Thelper cells
Most common allergies are the result of what type of Hypersensitivity?
type 1 (acute)
Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is which type of Hypersensitivity?
type IV delayed
Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish ____________ from foreign ones.
self-antigens
The upper respiratory tract extends from_________to____________
nose larynx
Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by
pulmonary artery
Which laryngeal cartilage is the largest?
thyroid
Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means
carbonic acid
carbaminohemoglobin
dissolved gas
bicarbonate ion
Which gas has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
nitrogen 78.6
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport
up to _____ oxygen molecules.
4
Which term is used to describe a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
hypoxia
In which disease, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis?
tuberculosis
The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in________
medulla oblongata
Which cells of the respiratory tract produce mucus?
goblet cells
This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste is_______________________
urea
Name functions of the kidneys?
fluid balance
detoxification
secretes renin,erythropoietin,vitamin D
controls BP
regulates ph
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as
renal capsule
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the
glomerulus
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
pct proximal convoluted tubule
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the ________ to form angiotensin I.
liver
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means:
dilates and constricts blood vessels
inhibits renin, aldosterone, ADH
inhibits sodium reabsorption
increases glomerular filtration rate
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
diabetes
Which muscle is located in the bladder?
detrosor muscle
Micturition is another term for
voiding urination
Lithotripsy is a medical procedure used to treat
renal calculi (kidney stones)
What is the most common urinary symptom of diabetes mellitus?
glycosuria
Most of the body water is in which fluid compartment?
ICF intracellular fluid
In which of compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?
interstitial spaces
Most body water comes from _____, whereas most body water is lost via ___.
drinking urine
Effect of the Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on urine formation:
decrease urine
Which is the principal cation of the ECF.
sodium
Effect of the Aldosterone on urine formation:
decrease urine, potassium
increase sodium
Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of which hormone?
aldosterone
Which is the most abundant cation of the ICF.
potassium
Which is the most abundant anion of the ECF.
chloride
Write the complete chemical equation for the bicarbonate buffer system.
CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = HCO3- + H+
What protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasma?
albumin
the kidney converts blood plasma to urine in three stages
glomerular filtration
tubular reabsorption
tubular secretion
aldosterone
promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion
maintains blood volume
reduces urine volume
angiotensin II
reduces water loss, encourages water intake, and constricts blood vessels raising BP. Acts as vasoconstrictor reduces GFR, stimulates PCT to reabsorb NaCl and H2O; stimulates aldosterone and ADH secretion; stimulates thirst
ADH
promotes H2O reabsorption; reduces urine volume; increases concentration
Atrial natriuretic peptide
dilates and constricts blood vessels
inhibits renin, aldosterone and ADH
inhibits sodium reabsorption
increase urine volume and lowers blood pressure