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Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.


The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their tonsillectomy (surgical removal) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.


Mechanisms of the second line of defense:

leukocytes and macrophages
antimicrobial proteins
complement system
natural killer cells

______________ antiparasitic WBC, release histamines, promotes allergies


___________ most numerous phagocytes, produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).


________________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.


A pyrogen is a substance that causes


Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called ____________.

heparin histamine

One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that

immunity response is directed against a particular pathogen or antigen

Vaccination stimulates which type of immunity?

artificial active immunity

T cells achieve immunocompetence in which location?


T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means

they multiply and form clones of identical Tcells programmed to respond to a particular antigen

The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates which type of immunity?

artificial passive immunity

Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)

MHC protein

Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in

lymph nodes

Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like a natural killer (NK) cell because they both

secrete perforin and granzymes

Functions of Antibodies

to render antigens harmless
complement fixation


antibodies mask pathogenic region of antigen

Complement fixation

antigen binds to IgM or IgG, antibody changes shape, initiates complement binding; primary defense against foreign cells, bacteria


antibody has 2-10 binding sites; binds to multiple enemy cells immobilizing them


antibody binds antigen molecules (not cells); creates antigen-antibody complex that precipitates, phagocytized by eosinophil

Correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response.

antigen recognition
antigen presentation
clonal selection

Each immunoglobulin (Ig) has (how many?) __________ antigen-bonding site(s).


Which type constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma?


This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn.


This is the class of immunoglobulin is the most prevalent during the first exposure to the Ag.


This is the class of immunoglobulin that is involved in allergic reaction.


Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into

plasma cells

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly which cells?

Thelper cells

Most common allergies are the result of what type of Hypersensitivity?

type 1 (acute)

Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is which type of Hypersensitivity?

type IV delayed

Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish ____________ from foreign ones.


The upper respiratory tract extends from_________to____________

nose larynx

Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by

pulmonary artery

Which laryngeal cartilage is the largest?


Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means

carbonic acid
dissolved gas
bicarbonate ion

Which gas has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?

nitrogen 78.6

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport
up to _____ oxygen molecules.


Which term is used to describe a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?


In which disease, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis?


The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in________

medulla oblongata

Which cells of the respiratory tract produce mucus?

goblet cells

This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste is_______________________


Name functions of the kidneys?

fluid balance
secretes renin,erythropoietin,vitamin D
controls BP
regulates ph

The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as

renal capsule

The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the


Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by

pct proximal convoluted tubule

Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the ________ to form angiotensin I.


Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means:

dilates and constricts blood vessels
inhibits renin, aldosterone, ADH
inhibits sodium reabsorption
increases glomerular filtration rate

Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of


Which muscle is located in the bladder?

detrosor muscle

Micturition is another term for

voiding urination

Lithotripsy is a medical procedure used to treat

renal calculi (kidney stones)

What is the most common urinary symptom of diabetes mellitus?


Most of the body water is in which fluid compartment?

ICF intracellular fluid

In which of compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?

interstitial spaces

Most body water comes from _____, whereas most body water is lost via ___.

drinking urine

Effect of the Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on urine formation:

decrease urine

Which is the principal cation of the ECF.


Effect of the Aldosterone on urine formation:

decrease urine, potassium
increase sodium

Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of which hormone?


Which is the most abundant cation of the ICF.


Which is the most abundant anion of the ECF.


Write the complete chemical equation for the bicarbonate buffer system.

CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = HCO3- + H+

What protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasma?


the kidney converts blood plasma to urine in three stages

glomerular filtration
tubular reabsorption
tubular secretion


promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion
maintains blood volume
reduces urine volume

angiotensin II

reduces water loss, encourages water intake, and constricts blood vessels raising BP. Acts as vasoconstrictor reduces GFR, stimulates PCT to reabsorb NaCl and H2O; stimulates aldosterone and ADH secretion; stimulates thirst


promotes H2O reabsorption; reduces urine volume; increases concentration

Atrial natriuretic peptide

dilates and constricts blood vessels
inhibits renin, aldosterone and ADH
inhibits sodium reabsorption
increase urine volume and lowers blood pressure

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