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Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their tonsillectomy (surgical removal) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
Mechanisms of the second line of defense:
leukocytes and macrophages
natural killer cells
___________ most numerous phagocytes, produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).
________________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.
Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called ____________.
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that
immunity response is directed against a particular pathogen or antigen
T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means
they multiply and form clones of identical Tcells programmed to respond to a particular antigen
The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates which type of immunity?
artificial passive immunity
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like a natural killer (NK) cell because they both
secrete perforin and granzymes
Functions of Antibodies
to render antigens harmless
antigen binds to IgM or IgG, antibody changes shape, initiates complement binding; primary defense against foreign cells, bacteria
antibody binds antigen molecules (not cells); creates antigen-antibody complex that precipitates, phagocytized by eosinophil
Correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response.
Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is which type of Hypersensitivity?
type IV delayed
Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish ____________ from foreign ones.
Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means
Which term is used to describe a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
In which disease, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis?
The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in________
This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste is_______________________
Name functions of the kidneys?
secretes renin,erythropoietin,vitamin D
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
pct proximal convoluted tubule
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means:
dilates and constricts blood vessels
inhibits renin, aldosterone, ADH
inhibits sodium reabsorption
increases glomerular filtration rate
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of which hormone?
Write the complete chemical equation for the bicarbonate buffer system.
CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = HCO3- + H+
the kidney converts blood plasma to urine in three stages
promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion
maintains blood volume
reduces urine volume
reduces water loss, encourages water intake, and constricts blood vessels raising BP. Acts as vasoconstrictor reduces GFR, stimulates PCT to reabsorb NaCl and H2O; stimulates aldosterone and ADH secretion; stimulates thirst
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