Psychological Science's Key Contributors
Terms in this set (77)
(1832-1920) Set up the first psychological lab. Trained subjects in introspection. Eventually described his theory as structuralism.
G. Stanley Hall
(1846-1924) FirstvAmerican to work for Wundt; • Founded the American Psychological Association (now largest organization of psychologists in the USA) and became first president
(1842-1910) Published "The Principles of Psychology", the science's first textbook. Established the Theory of Functionalism: How mental processes function in our lives.
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1863-1930) first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)
Margaret Floy Washburn
(1871-1939) First woman to earn a Ph.D in psychology (1894)
(1856-1939) Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis ; Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
John B. Watson
(1878-1958); Field: behaviorism; Contributions: generalization-inductive reasoning, emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; Studies: Little Albert
(1904-1990); Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
1891-1951; Field: Gastroenterology; Contributions: developed foundation for classical conditioning, discovered that a UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior; Studies: dog salivation
1896-1980; Field: cognition; Contributions: created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)
1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
(1802-1887) A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
(1870-1937); Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes, childhood influences personality formation; Studies: Birth Order
(1913-1999); Field: development; Contributions: compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; Studies: The Strange Situation-observation of parent/child attachment
(1907-1996); Field: social psychology; Contributions: studied conformity, found that individuals would conform even if they knew it was wrong; Studies: conformity, opinions and social pressures
(1929-Present), Worked with Shiffrin to explain our memory forming process with a theory of memory with a mathematical basis for the first time. It is known as the modal model of memory, combining structural divisions of memory into short-term and long-term memory components and explicitly modeling the attention and control processes that allow the entire cognitive system to function. The control processes they described, such as rehearsal, coding, retrieval strategies, and decision rules, are now standard in theories of memory
(1925-Present), kids do as they see the adult do (observational learning ), Bobo doll experiment to demonstrate how children imitate anti-social behavior
(1927-Present), Indentified 3 distinct parenting styles based upon "parental responsiveness and demandingness": 1) permissive parents set few rules, make minimal demands, and allow children to reach their own decisions. 2) Authoritative parents set firm rules, make reasonable demands, and listen to their child's viewpoint while still insisting on responsible behavior. 3) Authoritarian parents set rigid rules, enforce strict punishments, and rarely listen to their child's viewpoint.
(1921-Present); Field: cognitive; Contributions: father of Cognitive Therapy, created Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories
(1857-1911); Field: testing; Contributions: general IQ tests, designed test to identify slow learners in need of remediation-not applicable in the U.S. because too culture-bound (French)
(1824-1880), French physician and anatomist who discovered that the speech production center of the brain is located in the area of the lower left frontal lobe. Today, this area in the left cerebral hemisphere is known as Broca's area. It's discovery revolutionized the understanding of speech production.
(1928-Present); Field: language; Contributions: disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
(1942-Present) Personality theorists best known for their work in developing the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Popularly known as the "Big Five Model" it identifies openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeablesness, and neuroticism as broad domains or dimension of personality. Believed that these 5 dimensions represent the basic structure behind all personality traits.
(1946-Present), This modern psychologist proposed the developmental theory of achievement motivation that argues it is more adaptive to believe that abilities are not fixed, but rather malleable and able to change.
(1850-1909); Field: memory; Contributions: 1st to conduct studies on forgetting: first, a rapid loss followed by a gradual declining rate of loss; Studies: memory-series of meaningless syllables/words
(1913-2007); Field: cognitive-behavioral; Contributions: Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions
(1902-1994); Field: neo-Freudian, humanistic; Contributions: created an 8-stage theory to show how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
(1801-1887); Field: perception; Defined absolute threshold as the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected; introduced the concept of a differential threshold: the minimal amount of change in a stimulus that can be detected. He assumed the differential threshold for any stimulus was the end (1801 to 1887)
(1919-1989) American social psychologist - developed the theory of cognitive dissonance; social comparison; propinquity
(1822-1911); Field: differential psychology AKA "London School" of Experimental Psychology; Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance; Studies: Twin Studies-compare identical & fraternal twins, Hereditary Genius-used bell curve for normal distribution, & "Law of Errors"-differences in intellectual ability
(1917-2012), Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.
(1943-Present); Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the theory of multiple intelligences (logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic)
(1939-Present); Field: cognition (neuroscience); Studied of the neural basis of mind with primary responsibility for initiating human split-brain research. In his subsequent work he has made important advances in our understanding of functional lateralization in the brain and how the cerebral hemispheres communicate with one another.
(1936-Present), moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse
1905-1981; Field: development; Contributions: realized that touch is preferred in development; Studies: Rhesus monkeys, studied attachment of infant monkeys (wire mothers v. cloth mothers)
Also did the monkey mothers experiment with Harry Harlow. Monkeys and human infants prefer loving, soft, warm, feeding mothers.
Renowned for his research on hypnosis and pain control. He theorized that a hypnotized person experiences a special state of dissociation or divided consciousness. As a result, the hypnotized person experiences one stream of mental activity that responds to the hypnotist's suggestions while a second stream of mental activity is also processing information that is unavailable to the consciousness of the hypnotized subject. Named this second, disassociated stream of mental activity the "hidden observer"
1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends
Canadian neurophysiologist whose research on feature detectors helped demonstrate the presence of specialized neurons in the occipital lobe's visual cortex that have the ability to respond to specific features of an image.
American behavorial scientist who, along with William H. Masters, conducted pioneering research in the field of human sexuality and sex therapy.
Mary Cover Jones
behaviorist; founded systematic desensitization; unconditioned fear of rabbits in a three year old by conditioning (associated pleasant stimulus with rabbit).
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making,
investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability, anchoring, and representativeness heuristics
chose Aplysia to study the neuronal changes that occur when a new memory is formed for a simple classically conditioned response; as the structural and functional changes in the neurons strengthen the communication links in the memory circuit, the memory becomes established as a long-term memory
(1927-1987) American psychologist who used hypothetical moral dilemmas to study moral reasoning. His influential theory of the stages of moral development (Pre-conventional, Conventional, Post-conventional) is a milestone in developmental psychology.
Gestalt psychologist that first demonstrated insight through his chimpanzee experiments. He noticed the solution process wasn't slow, but sudden and reflective.
1944-present; Field: memory; Contributions: expert in eyewitness testimony (false memories or misinformation effect); Studies: Reconstruction of Auto. Destruction, Jane Doe Case (repressed memories of Nicole Taus' sex abuse)
Regarded as the founder of ethology, the comparitive study of animal behavior (including human) and their natural surroundings. Lorens earned widespread recognitions for his study of imprinting and aggression. He concluded that the mechanism inhibiting aggression works less well in humans than among other species.
1908-1970; Field: humanism; Contributions: hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied, self-actualization, transcendence
was an American gynecologist, best known as the senior member of the Masters and Johnson sexuality research team. Along with Virginia E. Johnson, he pioneered research into the nature of human sexual response and the diagnosis and treatment of sexual disorders and dysfunctions from 1957 until the 1990s.
With Paul Costa, an author of NEO PI R. the standard questionnaire measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM), provides a systematic assessment of emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles a detailed personality description that can be a valuable resource for a variety of professionals.
1933-1984; Field: social psychology; Contributions: wanted to see how the German soldiers in WWII fell to obedience, wanted to see how far individuals would go to be obedient; Studies: Shock Study
George A. Miller
One of the founders of cognitive psychology; made significant contributions to short-term memory,
Short term memories magic number, 7 (+/- 2)
Model: Agreed with Chomsky that human beings are born with an innate capacity for learning and understanding language, added the idea that this capacity is the result of millions of years of evolution, people developed a predisposition towards language because communication increased their odds of survival
refined Pavlov's principle that classical conditioning occurs simply because two stimuli are closely associated in time; indicated that the conditioned stimulus must be a reliable signal that predicts the presentations of the unconditional stimulus
1922-present; Field: emotion; Contributions: stated that in order to experience emotions a person must be physically aroused and know the emotion before you experience it
1942-present; Field: learning; Contributions: Positive Psychology, learned helplessness; Studies: Dogs demonstrating learned helplessness
(1907-1982) Psychologist who researched a recurring response to stress that he called the general adaptation syndrome, according to his three-stafe general adaptation syndrome, stress begins with an alarm reaction when people confront a stress-producing adrenaline, to bring about the fight-or-flight response. If the stressor continues, the body enters a second stage of resistance characterized by heightened physiological arousal and a sudden outpouring of hormones. Long-term exposure to the stressor event eventually leads to a third stage of exhaustion that depletes the body's resources and leads to physical disorders, vulnerability to illness, and a complete collapse.
Worked with Atkinson to explain our memory forming process with a model
1863-1945; Field: intelligence; Contributions: found that specific mental talents were highly correlated, concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled 'g' (general ability)
surgery designed to treat epileptics by severing the corpus callosum; contributed greatly to understanding the lateralization of brain function
1949-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)
advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Stanford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI
1874-1949; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence; Studies: Law of Effect with cats
Argued that Spearman's theory was flawed; came up with 'seven primary mental abilities'. He believed these seven principles were largely independent and couldn't be generalized(like Spearman suggested with "g" and "s")
Thorndike and Skinner believed that behavior is a complex chain of stimulus-response connections that is strengthened or "stamped in" by a rewarding consequence. Tolman challenged this view by conductiong a series of experiments demonstrating that rats formed a COGNITIVE MAP. Tolman concluded that learning involves the acquisition and use of knowledge rather than simply conditioned changes in outward behavior.
Did research with Kahneman involving availability heuristics and representativeness that showed shortcuts can lead to bad decisions
1896-1934; Field: child development; Contributions: investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development, zone of proximal development; play research
1795-1878; Field: perception; Contributions: just-noticeable-difference (JND) that eventually becomes Weber's law; Studies: 1st study on JND
A leading American psychologist who developed a series of widely used intelligence tests. Instead of using Terman's approach, he determined how far a person's score deviates from a bell-shaped normal distribution of scores. Most intelligence tests now use this system.
Nobel prize winning neuroscientist who demonstrated the importance of "feature detector" neurons in visual perception
German neurologist and psychiatrist who discovered that damage to an area on the left temporal lobe caused deficits in language comprehension. Today, this area in the left hemisphere is called Wernicke's Area.
Benjamin Lee Whorf
proposed a theory of linguistic relativity, according to which speakers of different languages develop different cognitive systems as a result of their differences in language.
Creator of systematic desensitization to treat anxiety-producing phobias. First taught his client how to maintain a state of deep relaxation. He and his client then created a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing images and situations. Then began with the the least threatening experience and then gradually worked their way up to the top level of the anxiety-producing hierarchy.
1933-present; Field: social psychology; Contributions: proved that peoples behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play; Studies: Stanford Prison Study-studied power of social roles to influence people's behavior
This humanistic psychologist focused on Abraham Maslow's last stage of the -Hierarchy of Needs': Self-Actualization. This psychologist said that 'flow' is obtained when there is an optimal level of difficulty and optimal level of arousal in an activity that you do once you achieve Self-Actualization.