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Chapter 6 LSD and Other Hallucinogens
Terms in this set (52)
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
a synthetic, serotonin-related hallucinogenic drug
- synthetically derived from ergot
a class of drugs producing distortions in perception and body image at moderate doses
For those who view these drugs with a "positive spin,"
particularly for those who took LSD in the 1960s, hallucinogens have been described as psychedelic, meaning "mind-expanding" or "making the mind manifest." In cases where a spiritual experience has been reported, such as with the ingestion of ayahuasca, hallucinogens have been called entheogenic, meaning "generating the divine within."
For people who view these drugs with more alarm than acceptance, the popular descriptive adjectives have been
psychotomimetic, meaning "having the appearance of a psychosis," psychodysleptic, meaning "mind-disrupting," or even worse, psycholytic, meaning "mind-dissolving."
The most even-handed way of defining their effects
- some researchers have suggested using the term illusionogenic as a more accurate way of describing drugs that produce these kinds of experiences.
Here the category of hallucinogens will be limited to those drugs that
produce marked changes in perceived reality at relatively low dosages and over a relatively short time interval
most hallucinogens can be classified in terms of
the particular neurotransmitter in the brain that bears a close resemblance to the molecular feature of the drug.
- a relatively small number of hallucinogens bear no resemblance to any neurotransmitter
three possible neurotransmitters:
serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine
major categories of hallucinogens
(1) hallucinogens related to serotonin
(2) hallucinogens related to norepinephrine
(3) hallucinogens related to acetylcholine
(4) miscellaneous hallucinogens
Hallucinogens related to serotonin
- LSD - a synthetic derivative of lysergic acid, which is, in turn, a component of ergot
- Psilocybin - various species of North American mushrooms
- LAA or morning glory seeds - morning glory seeds
- Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) - the bark resin of several varieties of trees and some nuts native to Central and South America
- Harmine - the bark of a South American vine
Hallucinogens related to norepinephrine
- Mescaline - the peyote cactus in Mexico and the US Southwest
- DOM or more commonly STP - a synthetic, mescaline-like hallucinogen
- MDMA (ecstasy) and MDA - two synthetic hallucinogens
Hallucinogens related to acetylcholine
- Atropine - Atropa belladonna plant, known as deadly nightshade, and the datura plant
- Scopolamine (hyoscine) -roots of the mandrake plant, henbane herb, and the datura plant
- hyoscyamine - roots of the mandrake plant, henbane herb, and the datura plant
- ibotenic acid - amanita muscaria mushrooms
- phencyclidine (PCP) - a synthetic preparation, developed in 1963, referred to as angel dust
- ketamine (K) - a PCP-like hallucinogen
- salvia divinorum or salvia - a hallucinogenic Mexican herb, in the mint family
a fungus infecting rye and other grains
a physical and/or psychological disorder acquired by ingesting ergot-infected grains. One form of ergotism involves gangrene and eventual loss of limbs; the other form is associated with convulsions, disordered thinking, and hallucinations.
the year LSD became illegal, later becoming a Schedule I Drug
- is considered one of the most powerful psychoactive drugs known
- its potency is so great that effective dose levels have to be expressed in terms of micrograms (mikes)
- the effective dose can be as small as 10 mikes, with only one-hundredth of a percent being absorbed into the brain
- taken orally, LSD is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and the brain, and its effects begin to be felt within 30 to 60 minutes, reaching a peak in about 2 to 12 hours, LSD effects are over
- toxicity is relatively low
- a lethal dose for humans between 300-600 times the effective dose
- LSD is odorless, tasteless and colorless
- street forms may contain color additives or adulterants with a specific flavor
- swallowed in the form of powder pellets (microdots) or gelatin chips (windowpanes) or else licked off small squares of absorbent paper that have been soaked with liquid LSD (blotters)
LSD initially produces an excitation of the sympathetic autonomic activity:
increased heart rate, elevated blood pleasure, dilated pupils, and a slightly raised body temperature. There is an accompanying feeling of restlessness, euphoria, and a sensation that inner tension as been released.
There may be laughing or crying, depending on one's expectations and the setting. between thirty minutes and two hours later, a "psychedelic trip" begins, characterized by four distinctive features. the best way to describe these effects is in the words of individuals who have experienced them:
- images seen with the eyes closed
- an intermingling of sense called synesthesia, which usually involves sounds being perceived as hallucinatory visions
- perception of a multilevel reality
- strange and exaggerated configuration of common objects or experiences
a subjective sensation in a modality other than the one being stimulated. an example is a visual experience when a sound is heard
During the third and final phase, approximately three to five hours after first taking LSD, the following features being to appear:
- great swings in emotions or feelings of panic
- a feeling of timelessness
- a feeling of ego disintegration, or a separation of one's mind from one's body
As a result of research in the 1980's, it turns out that the critical factor behind LSD's hallucinogenic effects lies
in its ability to stimulate a special subtype of serotonin-sensitive receptors called serotonin-2A receptors
- all hallucinogens, even those drugs whose structures do not resemble serotonin, have the ability to excite these receptors
- drugs that specifically block serotonin-2A receptors, leaving all other subtypes unchanged, will block the behavioral effects of hallucinogens.
- the ability of a particular drug to produce hallucinogenic effects is directly proportional to its ability to bind to serotonin-2A receptors
There are three major reasons why LSD is not likely to result in drug dependence
(1) LSD and other hallucinogens cause the body to build up a tolerance to their effects faster than any other drug category. As a result, one cannot remain on an LSD-induced high day after day, for an extended period of time
(2) LSD is not the drug for someone seeking an easy way to get high
(3) the LSD experience seems to control the user rather than the other way around. It is virtually impossible to "come down" from LSD at will. Besides, the unpredictability of the LSD experience is an unpopular feature for those who would want a specific and reliable drug effect every time the drug is taken.
the best treatment for adverse effects is
the companionship and reassurance of others throughout the period when LSD is active
hallucinogen persisting perception disorder
"flashbacks" - the possibility of reexperiencing the effects of the drug long after the drug has worn off
a serotonin-related hallucination drug originating from a species of mushroom
- a trip lasts from 2 to 5 hours
a brain chemical related to serotonin, resulting from the ingestion of psilocybin
If you develop a tolerance to LSD
then you have become tolerant to psilocybin effects, and vice versa (cross-tolerance)
a serotonin-related drug obtained either from a bean plant in Central and South America or from the skin of a particular type of toad
a tendency for the skin to turn bluish purple. it can be a side effect of the drug bufotenine
lysergic acid amide (LAA)
a hallucinogenic drug found in morning glory seeds, producing effects similar to those of LSD
a short-acting hallucinogenic drug
- "the businessman's LSD" because it lasts for up to an hour
- a chemical found in Bufo toads is similar to DMT
a serotonin-related hallucinogenic drug frequently used by South American shamans in healing rituals.
a norepinephrine-related hallucinogenic drug. its source is the peyote cactus.
a species of cactus that is the source for the hallucinogenic drug mescaline
a synthetic norepinephrine-related hallucinogenic drug, derived from amphetamine. DOM or a combination of DOM and LSD is often referred to by the street name STP
there is a growing consensus of option that hallucinogenic drug. there is a growing consensus of opinion of his psychotherapeutic benefits, although there are significant adverse physical and psychological side effects
-widely known under names such as ecstasy (not to be confused with the stimulant Herbal Ecstasy), E, XTC, X, Essence, Clarity, and Adam
- MDMA has the reputation of having the stimulant qualities of amphetamines and the hallucinogenic qualities of mescaline
the principal acute effect of MDMA is
severe hyperthermia (and heatstroke), which can be lethal when one ingests ecstasy while engaged in the physical exertion in an already overheated environment. the dehydration associated with hyperthermia causes an elevation in blood pressure and heart rate and places a strain on kidney functioning. These problems are compounded by the highly risky practice of "ecstasy stacking," in which multiple ecstasy tablets are taken at once or ecstasy is combined with LSD, alcohol, marijunana, or other drugs.
ecstasy use has also been linked to long-term
cognitive impairments and emotional difficulties. Heavy and prolonged ecstasy use can produce confusion, anxiety, sleep problems, reduction in impulse control, and declines in memory and attention.
- in general, women show greater behavioral effects from chronic ecstasy use than do men
a species of mushroom containing the hallucinogenic drug ibotenic acid
- also called the fly agaric mushroom because of its ability to lure and sedate flies and other insects
- grows i the upper latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, usually among the roots of birch trees
- this mushroom has a bright red cap speckled with white dots
- amanita mushrooms are one of the world's oldest intoxicants
- the effects can be lethal if dose levels are not watched very carefully. They produce muscular twitching and spasms, vivid hallucinations, dizziness, and heightened aggressive behavior
- the Viking warriors were reputed to have ingested amanita musrroms beofre sailing off to battle. the drug-induced strength and savagery of these "beserk" invaders were so widely feared that a medieval prayer was wrtten especially for protection from their attacks.
a number of natural plants contain chemicals that share a common feature:
the ability to block the parasympathetic effects of acetylcholine in the body
- the drugs with this ability, called anticholinergic drugs, produce specific physiological effects. the production of mucus in the nose and throat, and of saliva in the mouth, is reduced. body temperature is elevated, sometimes to very high fever levels. heart rate and blood pressure go up, and the pupils dilate considerably
- psychological effects include a feeling of delirium, confusion, and a loss of memory for events occurring during the drugged state. the amnesic property is one of the primary reasons for the minimal street appeal of these drugs
the principal anticholinergic drugs are
atropine, scopolamine (also called hyoscine), and hyoscyamine
an anticholinergic hallucinogenic drug derived from the atropa belladonna plant
an anticholinergic hallucinogenic drug.
an anticholinergic hallucinogenic drug found in mandrake, henbane, and various species of the datura plant
atropa belladonna plant (deadly nightshade)
a plant species whose berries can be highly toxic . it is the principal source of atropine.
a potato-like plant containing anticholinergic hallucinogenic drugs
an herb containing anticholinergic hallucinogenic drugs
a species of the datura family of plants with hallucinogenic properties. in the US, the plant is called jimsonweed.
phencyclidine (PCP) (angel dust)
a dissociative anesthetic hallucinogen that produces disorientation, agitation, aggressive behavior, analgesia, and amnesia. It has various street names, including angel dust.
a dissociative anesthetic hallucinogen related to phencyclidine (PCP).
Salvia divinorum or salvia
a Mexican leafy herb with short-duration hallucinogenic effects
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