102 terms

AS Geography - Human Geography

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Demographic Transition Model
It describes the sequence of change over a period of time and is the relationship between birth rates, death rates and overall population change.
Stage one of the DTM
- High fluctuating
- UK pre 1760
- Birth rates around 35 per 1000
- Example: Amazonian tribes
High Birth rate due to:
- Lack of birth control
- Religious beliefs
- Children needed as labour
- High infant mortality rate
- It is a sign of prosperity.
High Death Rate due to:
- Disease
- Famine
- War
- Lack of medical care
- Political reasons
- Unsanitary conditions
- Lack of clean water
Stage 2 of the DTM
- Early expanding
- UK 1760 - 1880
- High Birth rate, plummeting death rate
- Example: Kenya, Bangladesh
- More young dependents
Death rate decreasing due to:
- Improvement in medical technology
- More doctors
- Lifestyle
- Sanitation improved
- IMR decreases
- An improvement of transport
Stage 3 of the DTM:
- Late expanding
- UK 1880-1940
- Example: Brazil, Mexico
- Birth rate falling, death rate flat lining (falling slightly)
- Birth rate at around 20 per 1000 and death rate at 15 per 1000
Birth Rate decreasing due to:
- Education
- Lower IMR
- Emancipation of women
- Desire for wealth
- Increased use of machinery
- A government policy
Stage 4 of the DTM:
- Low fluctuating
- UK 1940 - present
- USA, UK, China
- Birth rates are around 16 per 1000 and death rates are 12 per 1000
- UK: 2.25 million males aged 35-39
Stage 5:
- Sweden Germany
- Population decline
- Japan: 2 million females aged 85-90
- Only 3 million under 4 females
Criticisms of the DTM:
• Doesn't account for migration
• Based on UK experiences and assumes all countries will pass through a similar rate of development.
• Does not account for the effect of government policies or natural events.
• Some countries develop at different rates and may not even go through some stages.
Positives of the DTM:
• To compare rates of growth between different countries
• To show how the population growth changes over time
• Can used by governments to plan
India (LEDC) - DTM
• There is 987 million people in India
• The GNP is only $370
• Only 4% of the population is over 65, while 36% is under 15
• Between 1901-1921 India was in stage 1 (birth rate at 46 per 1000)
• Between 1921-1981 they were in stage 2 (50% under 15 - Decreased IMR due to improved sanitation due to colonial ties)
• From 1981 to the present it is in stage 3 (a large rural population with strong religious beliefs means a large natural increase)
Japan (MEDC) - DTM
• Pre 1900 Japan was in stage one.
• Between 1900 -1950 Japan moved into stage 2. In 1920 the birth rate rose and peaked at 34.8 per 1000. The birth rate then drastically fell to 23 per 1000 due to World War II. In the late 40's Japan experienced a baby boom due to all the soldiers returning home.
• Between 1950-1970 Japan moved into stage 3. In 1966 460,000 fewer children were born due to it being the unlucky year of the horse.
• In the 1970's the Eugenic law was passed allowing women to have access to family planning. This caused Japan to move into Stage 4.
• Japan is now in Stage 5 and is experiencing a population decline.
Birth rate
The rate of births per 1000 inhabitants per year
Death rate
The rate of deaths per 1000 inhabitants per year
Natural increase
The birth rate - the death rate
Fertility rate
The average number of children a woman can expect to have during her lifetime
Life expectancy
The average age a person in a certain area is expected to live.
Population Pyramids
LEDCs:
- Bottom heavy
- Stage 1-3
- Kenya: 9% of population females age 0-4
MEDCs:
- Middle heavy
- Stage 4
- USA: 4 % of population males aged 35-39
Stage 5:
- Top heavy
- Germany: 4% of population females aged 80+
Consequences of too many Under 15's
• Costs on Education and health care services
• In the future it will result in a another 'baby boom'
Consequences of too few under 15's
• Closures of schools and other services
• Too few consumers/ skilled workers to drive the economy
• Reduction in competitive advantage
• Problem providing pensions to ageing population
Underpopulated
Not enough people to develop a country's resources. In 1982 Malaysia believed they were underpopulated at a population of 15 million.
Optimum population
The size of the population permits full utilisation of natural resources of an area giving maximum per capita and a high standard of living. E.g. The UK's is 30 million, half the size of its current population.
Overpopulated
A population increase or a decrease in natural resources that leads to a decrease in the standard of living.
The Human consequences of overpopulation are:
- Malnutrition
- Starvation
- Underemployment
- Overcrowding
- Poverty
- War and/or racism.
The environmental consequences are:
- Land degradation
- Soil erosion
- Desertification
- Loss of wildlife habitats
- Pollution.
Infant Mortality Rate
The average no. Of children per 1000 born alive that will die under age 1.
Dependency ratio
(Number of dependents/ number of those at working age) x 100
Population Management: China One child policy - Idea
Problem: Birth rate too high (44 per 1000 in 1950) & (31 per 1000 in 2008)

During the late 50's this time in China was called 'The Great Leap Forward' where industrial production had to be increased, which meant hardly any effort was put into farming. This caused a famine in which 20 million people died (which caused birth rates to fall and death rates to rise causing a population decrease). During the 1960's the Cultural Revolution took place, which encouraged more people to have children. The growth was so rapid that it caused concern that the government felt something must be done to slow down growth.

Today in China there is a population of 1.33 billion (20% of the world's population) and is growing bigger by the day. The policy was put in place in 1979 when the Chinese government felt the birth rate was way too high for the resources available and that the country was becoming overpopulated. Over 95% of the population live on only 40% of China (Predominately the south eastern side). The policy is estimated to have prevented 230 million children
Now only 1 in 5 people in the world live in China, compared with an estimated 2 in 5 if the policy was not in place
Population Management: China One child policy - Rules
Initial rules:
- One child per couple
- Couples had to apply for licenses to get married and to have a child
- Women could get married at 20
- Men could get married at 22
- People working for state firms would be made redundant if they had a second child
- Heavy fines may occur from having additional children
- Forced sterilisation of 'repeat offenders'
- Forced abortions

Those who conformed:
- Got priority housing
- Free education
- Family benefits

Early exceptions
- If a couple's child died or had a disability the couple could have another one
- Couples who were member of one of the 56 minorities (8% of the total population) could have two children or in very remote areas some families were allowed four children. This is seen a measure to increase minority numbers to avoid racial conflict between the Han.
- Rural farmers could have a second if the first was a girl
- Some enforcers would give out fines for additional children (bribes)

2008 exceptions
- All rural families could have two children
- If two on-child children marry they can apply to have two
- Family planning is voluntary and a wider choice of contraceptives
Population Management: China One child policy - Problems
- Now there is a shortage of Chinese females due to couples wanting males as their only child. Over 51.46% of the population is male and 48.54% are female. The female shortage is usually caused by female infanticide. The abortions of females are now illegal to increase the number of females.
- Too few babies are being born to care for the ageing population
- The birth rate has decreased 2% in the past 20 years and has gone below replacement level.
- There are now to few females. Only 48.54% of the population are females, causing a lot of men to be 'eternally single'.
- It is estimated there are only 100 newborn girls born to every 118 newborn boys born in China
- There may be a labour shortage in the future which may threaten China's rapid industrialisation
The problem with an ageing population
There are just over 61 countries in the world that don't have enough births to replace their populations. Twenty-four of these countries are in Europe alone.
The problem with an ageing population: Impacts
Impacts:
- Demand shifts from childcare centres to retirement homes. This further decreases the incentive for people to have more children.
- Many elderly people are requiring pensions. This is draining public spending allowances of the government.
- More people are retiring later causing young workers to miss out on opportunities.
- Family members will have to take care of elderly relatives
- This means many young people miss out on jobs that are currently held by more experienced workers over the age of 65. This results in a rise in youth unemployment and unemployment in general.
- 70% of pensioners depend on state benefits for 50% of their income in the UK
- 5.4 million women in the UK are over 65
- 8% of people over the retirement age in the UK were employed
- There was 10.7 million people over 50 in the UK
- In 2009 in the UK over £62 billion was spent on state pensions

- Japan's birth rate sits currently at about 7.31 per 1000 per year (after falling from 10 per 1000 per year in 2001) and is far below the world average of 19 births per 1000 per year.
- The TFR in Japan is 1.3, one of the lowest in the world and has decreased from a TFR of 5 in 1928. This means the working age group providing income to help the dependents will decrease to predicted values of only 51% of the population 2040 - 16% lower than in 2008.
- As the population ages the more incidences of crimes against elderly are reported such as burglaries and scams. As the population ages the more incidences of crimes against elderly are reported such as burglaries and scams.
The problem with an ageing population: Management
- Discouraging early retirement
- Raising the pension age to 67
- Lowering the high turnover in labour caused by early retirement
- Requiring workers to set up private pension accounts
- Changing the mindset of employers to recognize the value of experience in the work force
Benefits of an ageing population
- More people involved in volunteer work
- Crime rates will drop
- More markets will open up due to the ageing population
- Leisure services may increase and improved
Factors influencing Mortality rates
- Unsanitary conditions
- War
- GNP
- Access to clean water
- Stable food supplies
- Access to medical care
- Drought
- Access to transport
- Laws
Links between population growth and economic development in a country
- A growing population can either be good or bad for an economy.
- It can be negative for the economic development of a country, because it will mean a pressure on services & resources and a large youthful population will become an economic burden.
- It can also be beneficial to a country, as it will mean a larger consumer market and more taxes for the government to spend on services.
Changes in demographic indices over time
Indices:
Birth Rate,
Death Rate
Infant Mortality Rate
Fertility Rates
Dependency Ratios
Doctors per 1000
Life expectancy
Hospital beds per 1000,
Obesity rates
Spending per person
GDP
Population and the resource relationship
• This relates to the carrying capacity of a country
• The roles of constraints: War and climatic hazards
• It's in relation to sustaining population change
Malthusian theory to population change
- Thomas Malthus published the Malthusian theory of population growth in 1798.
- It predicted that population growth would be are doom in comparison to the number of resources available.
- He said that population would grow until it reached the limit of food supply after which there would be poverty and widespread famine.
- He believed that population increase by multiplication, whereas food production increased arithmetically.
- He believed 'checks' helped us to understand the population-resource relationship.
Positive checks of Malthusian theory
(would balance out this population growth (increased death rate)):
- Inadequate food
- Famine
- Disease
- War
Negative Checks of Malthusian theory
(Prevented the birth rate from increasing):
- Delayed marriages
- Abstaining from sex
- Reduced fertility rate.
Evidence for Malthus
There is much evidence to support his theory including:
- The Rwanda genocide in 1994 which claims a high population density and lack of arable land led to the massacres
- The collapse of society of Easter Island which was due to the overuse of resources which created tribal wars
- The creation of government constraints to prevent overuse of resources
- Natural hazards such as flooding in Thailand in 2011 and Famine on the Horn of Africa.
What Malthus didn't account for:
- New technology such as the Green Revolution
- The opening up of new land such as Australia and NZ (which were not properly explored by European societies)
- Irrigation techniques
- The reduction of population growth in MEDC's
Anti-Malthusian theorists: Boserup
• Esther Boserup: In 1965 Boserup believed that people have the resources of knowledge and technology to increase food supplies. Opposite to Malthus - she suggested that population growth has enabled agricultural development to occur - assuming people knew of the techniques required by more intensive systems and used them when the population grew.
• Examples: Demographic pressure (population density) promotes innovation and higher productivity in use of land (irrigation, weeding, crop intensification, better seeds) and labour (tools, better techniques).
• Was she right? Boserup argued that the changes in technology allow for improved crop strains and increased yields. GM crops ' Green revolution'
• But.... Boserup admits overpopulation can lead to unsuitable farming practices which may degrade the land e.g. population pressure as one of the reasons for desertification in the Sahal region (so fragile environments at risk) Boserup's theory based on assumption of 'closed' society - not the case in reality (migration).
Causes of food shortages
• In 1999 the UN reported that 10 million people were in need of emergency food supplies in sub-Saharan Africa.
• Severe drought, civil strife and insecurity in many countries have displaced large numbers of people and disrupted food production.
• 16 countries were reported to be facing exceptional food shortages with Angola, Somalia and Ethiopia the worst affected.
• The population of sub-Saharan Africa, with its high birth rates and falling death rates, is growing faster than anywhere else in the world. With 71% of the labour force in agriculture and 77% of the population living in rural areas, the income, nuitrition and health of most Africans is closely tied to farming.
• There is limited capital and technology, the use of new seeds, pesticides and irrigation. The whole agriculture is wholly reliant on unfavourable growing land. Much of the land has a low water-holding capacities, and are vulnerable to erosion. High evapotranspiration rates harm crops, and so do the unreliable rains that cause flooding one year and none the next. Droughts are also getting longer and more frequent.
• Land has been overgrazed and over-cultivated. This, together with the destruction of forests for fuel wood, has allowed accelerated erosion and desertification.
• Efforts to increase food production have been impeded by a lack of money for technology, tools and seeds. Even when money is given it is often diverted to unsuitable projects such as buying more cattle to herd on marginal land, and ploughing land better left with vegetation cover.
• Land is being used to grow cash crops
• Animals are usually attacked with flies and disease. Crops are often destroyed by pests such as locusts.
• To add to these problems many of these countries are facing civil strife, administrative corruption and the disruption of farming and distribution.
Consequences of food shortages
• People in these developing countries are suffering from malnutrition and weakened immune systems as a result of this.
• People, especially children, are suffering from: - Beri Beri (vitamin B1 deficiancy common rice dependant areas)
- Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency)
- Kwashiorkor (Protein deficiency)
- Marasmus (shortage of protein and calories)
- As a result their immune systems are more susceptable to Malaria & Typhoid.
- People in rural areas are more likely to be malnourished then people in urban areas.
The role of technology & innovation in resource development
Land reform:
• Helps overcome inefficiencies in the use of land and labour.
• The redistribution of land has been tackled by such methods as the expropriation of large estates and plantations and distributing the land to individual farmers, landless labourers and communal groups; the consolidation of small, fragmented farms; increasing security of tenure; attempting new land colonisation projects; and state ownership. The success of these schemes has been mixed, as not all have increased food production.

The Green Revolution:
• The green revolution refers to the application of modern, western-type farming techniques to farms in developing countries.
• It is when new hybrids of crops are developed to become disease resistant, weather resistant, drought resistant, and to increase output per plant.
• In general, it has improved food supplies in many parts of the world, but has also created adverse social, environmental and political conditions. When population growth was outstripping food production, questions were asked about the usefulness of these new HYV's. This is due to high birth rates, longer life expectancies, more land devoted to commercial crops and mass rural-urban migration in rapidly emerging economies. At the same time there is growing concern over the adverse health problems associated with the use of pesticides on crops and these chemicals leaching into water supplies.

Appropriate technology:
• It's needed to replace the many, often well-intentioned schemes that involved importing capital and technology from the more developed countries.
• Appropriate technology, often funded by NGO's, seeks to develop small-scale, sustainable projects, which are appropriate to the local climate and environment, and the wealth, skills, and needs of local people.
• This means:
o No dams or irrigations schemes
o No chemical fertilisers
o No tractors - just simple tools
o No cash crops
Population ceiling and population adjustments over time
• The concept of a population ceiling, first suggested by Malthus, is of a saturation level where the population equals the carrying capacity of the local environment.
• Three models portray what might happen as a population, growing exponentially, approaches the carrying capacity of the land.
• The rate of increase may be unchanged until the ceiling is reached, at which point the increase drops to zero. This highly unlikely situation is unsupported by evidence from either human or animal populations.
• Here, more realistically, the population increase begins to taper off as the carrying capacity is approached, and then to level off when the ceiling is reached.
• It is claimed that populations, which are large in size, have long lives and low fertility rates conform to this 'S' curve pattern.
• In this instance, the rapid rise in population overshoots the carrying capacity, resulting in a sudden check e.g., famine and reduced birth rates-which causes a dramatic fall in the total population.
After this, the population recovers and fluctuates around, eventually settling down at, the carrying capacity. This 'J' curve appears more applicable to populations, which are small in number, have short lives and high fertility levels.
• The carrying capacity is the largest population of humans/animals/plants that a particular area/environment/ecosystem can carry or support.
Population density
The average number of people per square kilometre
Population distribution
The way people are spread out
Human reasons for population density
- Infrastructure
- Access to education
- Healthcare
- Employment
- Entertainment
- Social
Physical reasons for population density
- Relief
- Water supply
- Ports
- Vegetation
- Soil fertility
- Resources
- Climate
Migration Balance
The difference between the number of people emigrating and immigrating
Immigrant
People that come into a country/ migrate to a country
Emmigrants
People that leave a country/ migrate to another country
Types of migration
• Voluntary: For employment purposes, lifestyle
• Illegal: Mexico to USA
• Internal: Urban to rural, IDP's
• Forced: Slaves
• External: Leaving the country
• Emigration: NZ to Australia
• Immigration: China to NZ
Reasons for migration
• Voluntary:
• Lack of social amenities e.g. better schools
• Climate e.g. retired Americans to Florida
• Jobs e.g. Polish workers to Poland in 2005
• Higher salaries e.g. NZ to Australia
• Territorial expansion e.g. British to NZ and Russians to Eastern Europe
• Forced:
• Disease e.g. LEDC's
• War e.g. Rwanda and Afghanistan
• Famine e.g. Horn of Africa to Kenya
• Natural disasters e.g. Sendai in Japan
• Overpopulation e.g. Chinese to South East Asia
• Racial discrimination e.g. Ugandan Asians
• Slavery e.g. Africa to America
• Persecution: War, religion, race, beliefs, political beliefs, status in society
Barriers & contraints to migration
• Government Restrictions e.g. Berlin Wall
• Lack of money e.g. to afford housing
• Lack of skills
• Lack of awareness and opportunities
• Illness
• Threat to family division and heavy family responsibility
• Distance
Internal Migration in New Zealand
• Between 1986-1991 50% of the population moved home.
• The average NZ household moves house at least every 5 years

North to south movement:
• Until 1900 the North Island's population had been less than the south island's (since the establishment of the colony in 1840). This was due to the gold rush in the parts of the south island and the absence of Maoris (which attracted farmers).
• Though by 1996 76% of the population lived the north island.

Rural-Urban movement:
• Between 1900-1950 the rural-urban drift accounted for a significant amount of the overall population movements. This was due to: increased industrialization of Urban areas, farms becoming less labour intensive, children in rural areas leaving for education in urban centres and not returning home, and a decline in the primary industry.
• In 1996 70% of the population lived in towns or cities in New Zealand.

Intra-urban and interurban movement:
• Most New Zealanders today are between or within urban areas
• In Auckland in 1991 most people only moved 1KM (25000 people) and slightly decreases with distance though 15000 people moved 16-20KM in the Auckland region.

Regional Migration:
• The main reason for inter-regional migration is for economic and job opportunities
• Most migrants concentrate in large cities, as there are more employment opportunities.
• Young adults move towards university towns in Auckland, Hamilton, Palmerston North, Wellington and Dunedin.
• Most elderly dwellers tend to move away to more rural areas offering sun, scenery, relaxation and cheaper living.
• Unemployed people move to cheaper living areas
• 2/3 of all new Zealanders move within regions.
Intra-Urban migration
Intra-Urban migration is the movement of people within an urban centre. This is probably one of the most common migration movements in New Zealand as people move from one suburb to another within a city.
Stepped migration
Starting with migrating from a small settlement to a larger settlement. Isolated dwelling > Hamlet > Village > Small town > Large town > City > Conurbation (Primate city)
Internal migration: Indonesia's Transmigration Policy - The migration
• Indonesia is very unevenly distributed. Most of the population live on Java, Bali and Lombok, as the soil is rich from volcanic activity. These core three island were overcrowded.
• The idea of Transmigration was introduced in 1905 during colonial rule and adopted by Indonesians in 1945. It was strengthened in 1969 during a dictatorship, which was the cause of the invasion of East Timor and West Papua.
• The government improved the quality of life on the less populated islands to attract the uneducated and landless families. This was done by stimulating the economy, improving infrastructure and land to landless families.
• In 1975 East Timor was seized by the Indonesian government to provide additional land for the policy
• Between 1949-1974 the government resettled over 670,000 people through the transmigration policy
• Another 3.5 million were resettled to the outer islands by 1990
• Over 200,000 East Timorese were killed during the suppression
• Many became refugees due to the policy
• Some people had no option to move
• Refugees accounted by 25% of the population on some outer islands
• 4.1 million people moved by 1990
Internal migration: Indonesia's Transmigration Policy - Barriers or constraints (Distance, cost, boarders)
• Cost of the government to move people
• Cultural indifferences
• Lack of agricultural knowledge
• Family splitting up
Internal migration: Indonesia's Transmigration Policy - The consequences
• As most new transmigrants were from urban areas and had little agricultural knowledge -which caused many new farms to fail (also the land given was often un-farmable even for even experienced farmers).
• Most new farms were on swamp lands, which caused many farms to fail as the techniques were difficult to grasp
• In 2002 after 25 years under Indonesian rule, East Timor became independent - though 40% continue to live under the poverty line.
• Deforestation carried out to create extra farmland for the migrants destroyed much of this invaluable resource. In the past 40 years 50 million hectares has been cleared for logging and agricultural development. On average 1.2 million hectares is lost in Indonesia. Soil erosion increases - leaching damages topsoils - reduces further soil richness.
• The failure of the farms has meant many of these families have returned to the cities.
• The programme was an economic failure for Indonesia. Between 1998-2000 national debt increased from 23% - 91% of total GDP.
• Ethnic & religious conflict arose between religions on some islands
• Pressure on services was relieved
Refugees
The United Nations Commission for Refugees (UNHR) defines a refugee as 'a person that cannot live in their country because of well founded fear persecution for reasons for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political association or political opinion. The term is often extended to include people forced to leave their home country due to internal strife or environmental disasters (earthquakes or famine) in order to seek security or help.
Asylum Seekers
Are people who have left their country of origin, have applied for recognition as a refugee, and are awaiting a decision on their application. International law recognises the right of individuals to seek asylum but does not force states to provide it.
Internally Displaced Peoples
They are people that have been forced to leave their homes for similar reasons of a refugee, though they have not left their country of origin. Many IDP's exist in the same conditions and force the same problems as refugees. Globally IDP's outnumber refugees.
Refugee movements
➢ In 2008 there were 16 million refugees and 51 million IDP's
➢ Global refugee numbers peaked at 17.6 million in 1992
➢ 50% of refugees are children
➢ Refugee's lack shelter, healthcare, money, clothing & education
➢ 4.5 million refugees in & around Israel
➢ 3 million refugees have fled to Pakistan/ Iran from Afghanistan
➢ The number of refugees in MEDC's have dropped due to tighter restrictions
➢ In 2008 195 people from Bhutan were accepted into New Zealand under refugee status
➢ New Zealand accepted 701 refugees into the country in 2008
Effects of migration on receiving countries
Effects of migration on receiving country:

+ Fill job shortages
+ More multicultural
+ More workers
+ Gained skilled labourers
- Intolerance
- Pressure of facilities
- Language Barriers
- More competition for jobs
Effects of migration on origin countries
Effects on origin country:

+ Relief on services
+ Money sent home
- Loss of family members
- Loss of skills
Rural to Urban Migration - China's Hukou system
China's population has grown to over 1.3 billion people. Most of the population is located on the Eastern seaboard of China where industrial activity has thrived. The number of migrants from rural western areas to the Eastern regions. To ensure structural stability in some regions the Chinese government implicated household registration in 1958.

1950's
• Hukou system enforced from 1953-1976
• Limited mass migration from rural to urban
• Ensured enough labour for state run businesses
• Police would round up those without proper registration and deport them to rural areas
• People were not allowed to have a job without a permit
1960's
• The Great Leap Forward caused famine among rural residents, many fled to urban areas where food was rationed. Rural Hukou residents often starved to provide for the country and high taxes meant there was little money left to pay for food. From this over 30 million perished between 1958-1962; 95% of these were rural Hukou residents. This showed how different Hukou's could affect people.
• In the late 1960's the 'back to the village' movement shifted 20 million from urban areas to rural areas.
1970's
• Increased industrialisation led to rapid urbanisation
Rural to Urban Migration - China's Hukou system - Causes
Causes
• Scarcity of productive land
• Rising cost of agriculture
• Over supply of farm labour (100 million surplus)
• Government policy - between 2002-2007 300 million were planned to move to 10,000 new towns
• Pay is more attractive e.g. average income per year is $5000 in Sichuan (rural) and in Shanghai it is between $15000-27000 per year
Rural to Urban Migration - China's Hukou system - Impact
Impact of Rural-Urban Migration
• Loss of agricultural land
• Strain of housing, public utilities and transport
• Many illegal Hukou residents were unable to gain access to services such as education and many lived in slums
• Over supply of labour (5.2 million are unemployed in the major cities)
• Environmental concerns and planning concerns to accommodate the influx of migrants
International migration: New Zealand to Australia - Causes
Push from New Zealand
• Long hours
• Lack of roles being filled in critical positions
• Stressful work environments
• Student debt or other loans
• Christchurch earthquake

Pull to Australia
• Better climate
• Better pay
• Less stressful work environment
• Time to pursue other activities
• New experiences
International migration: New Zealand to Australia - Impacts
• Around $4000 a year is claimed to be lost by each emigrant in tax
• The 2006 Census showed about 390,000 people born in New Zealand were living in Australia, but the numbers are expected to have increased significantly since.
• Auckland was the only region to record a net gain of international migrants last month.
• The net loss of migrants in the last year comes despite increases in the number of people moving here from Britain (up 5300), India (5000) and China (4800).
• Immigration New Zealand is expecting demand for labour migration to increase alongside economic recovery, and the Canterbury rebuild could lead to a further increase of skilled migration numbers
The Kiwi exodus to Australia has hit a new high, with annual departures reaching 53,000 as of February 2012.
• New Zealand suffered a net loss of 39,100 people after departure numbers were partially offset by 13,900 arrivals, most of them returning citizens.
• The overall net loss of 4100 people in the year to February 29 is also the largest since the year ended August 31, 2001, when 4400 people left New Zealand.
• The highest single month loss to Australia was 5000 people, in February 2001.
• The new figures showed the number of people leaving New Zealand last month was 1200 higher than in February last year, including 1000 extra people crossing the Tasman.
Consequences of urban growth
Housing
• Most housing in inadequate
• Most must fend for themselves and survive by their own efforts
• 1/3 of urban dwellers in developing countries can't find/ afford accommodation to meet basic health and safety standards
• Many sleep on the streets, rent a single room or create shelters themselves
• Some of the settlements are improved over time. The government adds sewerage, water supply, and electricity and refuse disposal to existing shanty-towns (cheaper than making new houses).

Services
• Only parts of the city have access to infrastructure
• Rubbish is rarely collected
• Drainage is inadequate
• Lack of electricity hinders industrial growth
• Emergency services are unreliable
• Shops may only carry essentials

Pollution & Health
• Drinking water is often contaminated with sewerage
• Disease is often caused by drinking water
• Many are malnourished
• Lack of pollution controls fuel the spread of respiratory disease
• High IMF

Transport
• Inadequate transport system
• Road networks unable to deal with a large volume of traffic
• High accident rates and pollution
• Traffic mainly consists of old cars, vans, trucks, overcrowded buses, carts, rickshaws and bicycles.

Unemployment and Underemployment
• New arrivals exceed the number of jobs available
• Manufacturing industry is limited
• Occupations limited to police, army, cleaners, security and the civil service.
• Many work in informal sector
• Informal jobs include street trading, food processing and local crafts
Problems resulting from rapid urban growth: Cairo, Egypt
➢ Cairo has a population between 6-12 million residents (unknown really as no real census has been conducted).
➢ Many live in the Medieval centre of town in: Overcrowded two room apartments in densely packed flats, additional roof top slums on top of flat top buildings and in the city of the dead (a Muslim cemetery estimated to hold 3 million people).
➢ Streets are narrow, noisy and polluted.
➢ Pollution comes from dilapidated 20th Century sewerage systems and small factories located in backyards.
➢ Carts take rubbish to the edge of the city where it is sorted by people sifting for things to recycle for money
➢ By 2009 sewerage was improved, roads improved, metro was built, refuse collection began, and low cost apartment blocks were built.
Strategies for reducing urbanisation in LEDC's - Problems
➢ Collapsing infrastructure: Many cities in the developing world do not have an infrastructure that is capable of dealing with the massive increases in population. In addition, the governments do not have sufficient funds available to maintain the facilities, let alone improve them. Particular problems arise because of the inadequacy of the road and sewerage networks - see next point.

➢ Increasing levels of pollution: Pollution of air, land and water is a major problem in most developing world cities. The drive to industrialisation brings with it inevitable problems, especially as legislation to protect the environment is often non-existent or rarely enforced. Furthermore, the hidden economy can add to the levels of pollution as small, unlicensed industries are set up in peoples homes or on rooftops. These industries release their pollutants into the air, land and water.

➢ Increased volume of traffic on poorly maintained roads: The water supply can also become polluted as inadequate sewerage facilities allow the spread of harmful bacteria. Indeed, death from water-borne disease (give examples) is one of the biggest causes of high infant mortality rates.

➢ Inadequate housing and services: Shanty towns display most problems typical of developing world cities. On arrival at the city, it is most likely that the migrant will find him having to create his own shelter, live on the streets or rent a single room. In Calcutta, "Hotbed Hotels" rent rooms on an eight hour basis, whilst in Mexico City, over ten million live in shanty towns.

➢ The shanty-town is likely to be found on inappropriate land: Maybe it is prone to flooding or is very steeply sloping, increasing the chances of a landslip. It could be on a piece of land that has been badly polluted by a neighbouring industry. The shelters made of wood & plastics, and high population densities increase the risk of fire.

6. The services will be non-existent or incapable of maintaining a basic standard of living. The lack of basic services like a clean water supply, rubbish collection and sewerage disposal mean that the risks of disease are very high.

➢ A lack of employment means that people have to look for other ways of earning money: In Manila, children scavenge on refuse sites collecting cans for recycling. As well as being unpleasant, the risk of injury is high and any cuts will become infected. Hospital waste is also dumped on the site with hypodermic needles adding to the dangers of serious infection. Children sometimes even have to work for unreasonably low pay in dangerous factories. Drugs, gangs and prostitution have also taken a grip in many shanty towns.
Solutions to urbanisation problems in LEDC's
Solutions to any problem are made more difficult by the lack of available resources and the sheer scale of the problems faced.

1. Site and service schemes: Popular in India and Brazil. This is a scheme whereby the government will provide a site (a small concrete 'hut') and basic amenities such as water and sewer facilities. The migrant is given rights of ownership and then expected to complete the work at his or her expense. This is often done as a cooperative between groups of migrants. In other situations, the authorities just provide the plot and building materials for the migrants to construct their own homes.
These schemes are relatively cheap and give the migrants a sense of control over their future. They also encourage community spirit.

2. Rehabilitation: An alternative to this scheme is to provide the residents of shanty towns with the materials to improve their existing shelters. Residents are also encouraged to set up community schemes to improve education and medical services. Residents may also be given rights of ownership whilst local authorities come in and provide electricity, water and sewerage disposal. This has been tried in Bolivia and Pakistan.
It is a cheaper option than the site and service schemes but simply hides the real problems. The germs may not have been removed, the land still unsuitable and the water/sewer system still not adequate.

3. Housing developments: Some countries, such as Singapore, have embarked upon massive re-housing programmes, resulting in high-rise estates.
Large areas of shanty towns were cleared, tower blocks built and the shanty town residents re-housed.
One problem was people using the lifts as toilets - this was stopped when lifts were made sensitive to urine and locked on the offenders. Today, blocks are designed by architects and have management teams that keep them graffiti and litter free. This is helped by the strict rules enforced in Singapore, where dropping litter or selling chewing gum will result in a very heavy fine.
Each housing development is designed to be self sufficient, with shops and services and employment in light industry, such as clothing. They are also located close to Singapore's highly efficient rail system - the Mass Rapid Transport. This helps reduce traffic congestion, which is further reduced by strict quotas on the number of licensed cars and regular tolls on all major roads.
The housing and development board aims to provide every person with a home and has continued its building programme for the last 40 years.

4. Sewage rehabilitation: Several cities have taken on major projects to try and repair damaged water and sewerage pipes. This improves the safety and quality of the water in the city and would reduce mortality rates. The rehabilitation also goes some way to reducing the unemployment problems.
Urban - Rural Fringe
Boundaries between rural & urban areas are becoming increasingly blurred. Most rural residents are economically & socially urban (commuters). The urban fringe is an area of rapid development & change. Change is faster & more likely, particularly in traditional remote rural settlements due to:
• Integration of the economy on a global & national scale.
• Better communication.
• Easier movement of people & goods.
Urban-Rural Environmental Continuum
The influences of urban areas are strongest near to these urban areas and so there is an urban-rural continuum.

• Urban built environment
• Urban-rural fringe - May include greenbelt. Land use of farmland and a settlement dominated income e.g. country park.
• Farming & commuter zone - Settlements are modified by commuter activity with strong development pressures. The farming is productive. The area is also affected by counter-urbanisation trends e.g. farm conversions.
• Deep Countryside - Beyond commuting distance. Settlements are influenced by holiday homes. Farming is unaffected by urban areas but there is some outward migration.
• Remote rural environments - Marginal farming & steady outward migration. Tourism is increasingly important.

In areas where population is increasing there is immense pressure for extra housing therefore have to build on land beyond the urban fringe. There is fierce competition & controversy over land use.
They need to decide either:
• Build adjacent to existing towns & villages.
• Concentrate in completely new Greenfield sites.
Expansion of the Fringe
There was rapid expansion of the rural-urban fringe during the 1920s & 30s due to urban sprawl and improvements in public transport. This led to the development of suburbia with large estates of mainly semi-detached housing with open space & little industry.

1960s-1980s: - Urban sprawl continues either for low-density, high quality housing or outer city council estates for people from slum clearance.

1990s: - Increasingly see the rural-urban fringe as a development prospect. The land is cheaper; there is a better environment and more space. This leads to conflict between economic development & protecting the rural environment.
Settlement Models
- Burgess Concentric Zone model
- Hoyts sector model
- Ullman Harris Multiple Nuclei Model
- Mann's Model
Birmingham: An example of a traditional inner city area
• The location of low-income households in cities in MEDC's are typically located in the inner city area in most European and North American cities. The location of households depending on income is best displayed through the Burgess Concentric Zone Model.
• This Model is based in relation to the bid rent theory, where the most expensive land is located in the Central Business District (CBD) where competition for land is high.
• Throughout the 19th and 20th century, low-income housing has predominantly built in and around the zone of transition (or the twilight zone). This zone is built around a zone of industry and manufacturing that encircles the CBD.
• High-density housing was built around this zone of manufacturing in cities such as Birmingham in the UK, to house the labour force that were employed in factories e.g. for manufacturing. In Birmingham many four roomed terraced houses on small sections were built in places such as Sparkhill in the inner city area, for workers in low paying jobs in the manufacturing zone of town. Plots of land around the manufacturing zone in Birmingham were bought to house, as many workers as possible, so costs of commuting time and costs would be low.
• This is still applicable today in Birmingham, where low-income immigrant families (predominantly Somalis and Bangladeshis) settle in low cost housing in the inner city area.
• Some of these areas have been gentrified e.g. in Highgate (NW of Sparkhill) and are now occupied by more upper middle class residents. Whereas low-income families have moved to cheaper flats on housing estates (built by the government) on the urban fringe, where land is cheaply acquired to house such a large amount of people needing cheap housing.
Auckland: A contrasting inner city in an MEDC
• Low-income households in MEDC's do not always fit to this concentric zone model, and the location of low-income households can be dependent of physical geography.
• For example in Auckland the Burgess Model does not really apply due to its location on an isthmus. Higher income households tend to be located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean where land is more desirable, in the North shore, Eastern bays and Ponsonby area.
• Whereas low-income households are predominantly located in the south and west where the government to build 'State Houses' bought swampy less desirable land cheaply. These houses here are cheap and predominantly rented out to these low-income families. Many must commute to work via train or bus to the city, or work in industry e.g. the Port of Manukau, closer to home.
Problems in the inner city area in MEDC's
The inner city in MEDC's is generally characterised by minimal educational opportunities, high unemployment rates, high crime rates, broken families and overcrowded accommodation.

The inner city area was the centre for industry and contained small 4 room terraced houses to accommodate workers. By the 20th century industry had moved to the urban-rural fringe and overseas where labour was cheaper. Jobs and inhabitants vanished with them too, leaving the inner city to go into a state of urban decay. Today many problems occur in the inner city area.

Decay & deprivation is a relative concept depending on how deprived the area is in relation to more prosperous areas.
Inner city areas suffer
• Poverty
• Pollution
• Crime
• Overcrowding
• Poor housing conditions
• Unemployment
• Racial tension

Social Problems
• Properties have deteriorated
• High percentage of overcrowded households
• Higher death & infant mortality rates
• Lower life expectancy
• Social segregation - Racial discrimination
• Persistent unemployment - culture of poverty
• High levels of stress due to poverty - family breakdowns.

Economic problems
• Loss of business & industry - massive unemployment (51% above national average.
• Few people can afford to own their own houses or invest any money.
• Local authorities have little taxes so lack of investment in the local area.
• Environmental decay - spiral of decline.
• Businesses put off by high land prices, lack of space, high crime & traffic congestion.

Environmental Problems
• Decay & deprivation of factories - seedbeds for crime e.g. drugs.
• Lack of open space
• Dereliction and poor state of repair causes depressing environment.
• Air pollution
• Local watercourses often badly polluted by factories.
The placement of Low income households in LEDC's
• In LEDC's low income households tend to be located according to Hoyt's sector model, rather than the Burgess model as development has only begun to occur fairly recently.
• Low-income households in LEDC's predominantly are located on the outskirts of a city where land is available but often built on illegally. However some low-income households are located in land that has been deemed to hard to build upon e.g. a hillside.
• An example of this division of households based on their wealth is displayed in the city of Rio Di Janeiro in Brazil, where 6% of the population in Brazil live in slums.
o Vast amounts of migrants from predominantly the rural poverty stricken north migrate to Rio to search for employment.
o Many tend to settle in established low-income neighbourhoods known as favelas on the outskirts, where the land is uninhabited and is not already built upon.
o Flimsy shacks or poorly constructed houses are often built here, and become densely populated.
o These favelas are usually located around pockets high-income households where they work in low paying jobs such as cleaners and waiters. However some favelas have developed on land closer to the city centre, which had previously been deemed uninhabitable.
o Many low-income households try to find land to build on as close to employment opportunities as possible. So often favelas are found in swampy land or steep dangerous slopes of the mountains (where often mudslides occur during heavy rain) that surround the city.
o Some even are located illegally on construction sites. Usually these settlements are built illegally without the permission of the owner.
• The low-income households in LEDC's tend to be locating where land is unoccupied and often unsuitable (can be also be dangerous) to build. The households also tend to be located around higher income households where they work in local service based jobs or in these high-income households as cleaners. Whereas in MEDC's low income households tend to be located in the inner city area near manufacturing based areas of town or in government built housing estates in the outskirts of town where the land is cheap.
A case study of rural settlement: Ohura, New Zealand
• Ohuru is in King Country near Taumarunui
• Population 150
• Between 2005-2006 the population declined 3.5%
• It has a cosmopolitan club and a school
• Coal mine closed (though another may open with resource content)
• Prison shut down and is now a backpackers
• Dairy shut down after prison closed as it struggled to make ends meet
• Jobs lost at mine after it was closed by the government
• About 12 left at the primary school

2001:
• Male bias from prison
• 20.3% are under 15
• 5.1% are over 65
• 25% have a post high school qualification
• Mostly Maori and European
• Median income of $10900
• Unemployment rate 14.3%
• 42 families
• 73% have access to telephones
• Average weekly rent payment in $60

2006:
• Decrease of 57 people
• Female to male ratio about equal
• Percentage of European increases
• Only 4% are from overseas
• Unemployment rate down to 9.1%
• Average income rose to $11500
• Access to telephones dropped to 72%
Residential segregation
Residential segregation is separation of settlements on the basis of wealth, age and/ or ethnicity. Usually the poorest are attracted to cheaper areas and the wealthiest to new or well-preserved areas.

Explanation:
• Usually divisions occur when less well off people are attracted to cheaper areas and wealthier people to newer cleaner areas that they can afford.
• Social tensions may arise due to stark differences in lifestyle, religion or preferences.
• Migrants and ethnic groups move to areas of existing communities and support networks.
• Some may move to a particular area for a school zone. People that are successful may try to get their children into a better school.
• Physical barriers may segregate e.g. hills or railways

Positive Impacts:
• Different Migrants = new skills
• Housing boom
• Possible increase in tolerance
• Segregation enables the celebration of difference
• Segregation allows resistance to external threats

Negative Impacts:
• Renting shortages
• Racial conflict may arise
• Increased intolerance may occur
• Outcome of inequality
• Leads to misunderstanding and mistrust
• Leads to stereotyping
Case study of residential segregation: South Africa 1970s - present
• Since 1948 South Africa had been legally segregated, until it was abolished in the early 90's. However evidence of this residential segregation based on ethnicity is still evident today in Cape Town and Johannesburg.

• In 1970 70.2% of the 22.46 million population were black, 17.5% were white, 8.8% were coloured, 2.7% were Asian, and 0.8% were other.

• In 2008 79.5% of the 47.85 million population were black, 9.1% were white, 8.9% were coloured, and 2.5% were Asian.

• In 1950 the Groups area act ensured the different ethnicity groups lived in separate parts of town. The whites had the best residential areas. Buffer zones of 100m were put in place often along main roads or railway lines, to attempt to separate the three groups.

• Blacks who lived in the city since birth or worked for the same employer for 10 years were moved to newly created townships on the edge of town. The rest were forced to move away to newly created reserves and homelands (where environmental advantages were minimal). These homelands took up 13% of the land but held 72% of its population. Most Blacks here were only employed on one year contracts to prevent them from gaining urban residential rights. In the 70's they made up 3% of GDP.

• Today Europeans continue to dominate areas in Cape Town such as the area around Table Mountain and around the CBD. The Asian/ Coloured population live mostly around the commerce and industry zones of town. Whereas the blacks live mostly (Cape Flats) around the main roads and are separated from the Whites through these barriers.

• This is similar to Johannesburg where the white population are surrounded by roads to divide them from the black population that live in Soweto and around the outskirts of the city. In Johannesburg the commerce and industry zones divide the races.

• Today Africans still are the majority living in squalid poverty stricken conditions, with many from border countries fleeing into South Africa. Homes are mostly shacks with minimal furniture. Water supplies are shared by hundreds of families and roads are rarely maintained. Unemployment is around 40% in Soweto alone because commerce and industrial centres are built so far away to prevent them from gaining long term employment. Also transport is very expensive because of the distance. These shanty towns were meant to be temporary accommodation for migrant workers from the 'homelands', where black South Africans had to return to their homelands to apply for a 11 month contract to work for Whites in South Africa.
Shanty town's
Shanty-towns (slums, squatter settlements) usually lack basic amenities such as indoor plumbing, electricity, sewerage, clean piped water and access to services such as rubbish collections. The settlements spontaneous, illegal and do not have the right to occupy the land.
An example of a shanty-town: Rio's Favellas
• Found on swamp/ marshland and steep mountainsides on the hills surrounding Rio de Janeiro. Usually they are built illegally on land that they do not own or land previously deemed unsuitable to build upon.
• A Favela is officially a residential area where 60 or more families live in illegally built accommodation that lacks basic amenities.
• Usually there is only one water pump for hundreds of families and many families need to carry water cans several times a day.
• Preferred sites are those near the main roads and water supplies. Sewerage is sometimes available in open drains downhill near newly built homes.
• When it rains mudslides and flash floods on the slopes can carry the flimsily constructed homes away and can kill many residents (200 in February 1988).
• Almost 1 million people (about 1/5 f the total population) live in Rio's estimated 750 favellas. The two largest, Rocinha and Morro de Alemao, have an estimated 100,000 people living in them.
• 95% of favela residents now have access to clean water and 76% to improved sanitation.
• The government has pledged a further $1.7 billion to help improve favelas and combat their problems.
• Crime (Prostitution, drugs, gangs), disease (Cholera, bugs, lack of access to healthcare to treat minor ailments), unemployment (many work in the informal sector) and a lack of education are major problems in these favelas.
• Favela homes are often crudely constructed with wood, cardboard, corrugated iron, plastic and bricks. They are dangerously built on land that is not their own. Electricity is often illegally tapped into.
• The Favela homes are often two rooms. One for living and one for sleeping.
Management of urban areas in LEDC's
The general tactics for the management of urban areas are:
• Slum clearance
• High-density high-rise housing - superblocks.
• Regentrification - only works in upper class areas.
• Site & service schemes.
• Building of New Towns & satellite towns.

Slum clearance - Manila
3000 shacks were destroyed in 2 weeks to make space for new development. Slum clearance is supposed to warn off migrants in rural areas but it can still occur. Slum clearance is not used as much now as the international community disapproved of it.

New Town - Brasilia
Brasilia was built to remove pressure from the triangle around Sao Paulo, Belo-Horizonte & Rio and to open up inland areas. It has a population of 1.7 million. The town has been built in the shape of an aeroplane.
Fuselage - Government buildings, commerce, culture etc.
Wings - Housing.
The town was built with a good environment. There is lots of open space and an artificial lake formed from dammed rivers. However, the town was built especially for motorists so they could get to work without traffic lights. This is dangerous for those who want to walk, as they have to cross 3 lane expressways.

Housing - Superblocks/superquadras
• Complete self-contained units.
• 9-11 apartment blocks housing 2500 each.
• Apartments are luxurious & expensive.
• Contains all the services needed.
However, there have been some problems. Brasilia is a bureaucratic city & so there is very little industry. Also there is little or no housing for the poor although there are already squatter settlements forming.

Site & Service Schemes
Improvement will be a lot faster with help such as aided self-help (ASH). The land should be legalised to allow people to make their own improvements to property. It would also help to bring in technical help from other countries.
Calcutta

Co-operatives have been formed to help improve the area. This means they borrow money from people they trust to improve quality of life & invest in the local area. 3 Areas:
• Upgrade housing
• Site & Service Scheme - common on the peripheries. In some areas it is unsuccessful, as there are less job opportunities & a poorer transport system on the outskirts.
• Core housing scheme - A step up from self-help. May include bathrooms & sanitation with a variety of different house types.
Rocinha, Rio

Self-help schemes have transformed the favela into a small city with brick housing. The local authorities have also added pavements, street lighting, electricity, water pipes etc. Shops & industry has also been set-up to create jobs, although mainly in the informal sector.
Similarly a project called favela Bairro £200 million has been set aside for improvements, Buildings have been replaced, streets made wider, pavements, and electricity etc. has been laid. Also labour has been used in the favela to develop new skills.
Urbanisation
The process by which an increasing proportion (%) of the total population of a country lives in towns and cities.
Counter-urbanisation
The process of moving from an urban environment to a rural environment. The process of population movement from urban to rural areas lead to the formation of suburbanised villages. This is due to push & pull factors. The reasons for counter-urbanisation are:
• Greater affluence - mobile workforce.
• New technologies - tele-cottaging & the Internet improve communication.
• Better transport - people can easily commute to work.
• House shortage anyway due to high population & fewer people per house.
Gentrification
Where old substandard housing is bought, modernised and occupied by wealthy families.
Counter-Urbanisation in Sydney Australia
• Many leave due to congestion, crumbling infrastructure, expensive real estate prices and soaring rent prices.
• 25% of Sydney residents are looking to leave
• In New South Wales government created a $3.75 million campaign to lure Sydney residents to 'Evocities' such as Bathurst and Orange. The campaign included billboards along congested city roads.
• The current population of Sydney is 4.5 million and is expected to reach 5.7 million by 2030.
• A June 2020 survey said 50% of people needed an annual income $100,000 to live comfortably in Sydney. Only 15% of those surveyed had such an income.
• In 2010 Sydney was one of the least affordable cities to live in the world.
• Sydney's annual house price in June 2010 was $700,000 compared to Evocity prices of $300,000.
• 60% of those that pay rent in Sydney pay over $350 per month - in Evocities only 20% pay this.
• Evocities are said to have good education, healthcare, transport and opportunities for new businesses.
• On average a Sydney resident only has 10% of their income left to spend on leisure - In Evocities it's 25%.
• A Large Evocity (Wagga Wagga) has around 58,000 people
Competition for land - The Land Value or the bid-rent theory:
• There are numerous theory's related to locational rent. Though the main assumption is the highest bidder will obtain the land. It is also assumed the highest bidder is the one that can obtain the most profit from the site.
• Land competition is highest at the CBD, mainly because it's accessibility and the shortage of space.
• Businesses such as shops conduct business using a relatively small amount of ground space and due to the high rates of sales and turnover they can bid a high price for land (they use the land intensively). Usually offices are built in high rises above ground level shops.
• The Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI): The most valuable site in the CBD.
• Retailers compete with offices - which rely upon good transport systems and proximity to other commercial buildings
Functional Zones in MEDC cities
CBD:
• High rise office developments
• Apartment buildings
• Indoor shopping/ retail
• Cultural attractions/ tourist attractions e.g. Museums, Event centre, Casinos, Opera House
Inner city:
• Inner city redevelopment (Gentrifcation)
• Industry/ light manufacturing
• Cheap housing in small terraced housing/ apartments
• A few shops to serve local workers
Suburbs:
• Shopping parades with essential services and some specialty stores
• Semi - detached housing
• State housing
• Detached housing
• Public open space (parks, arenas, stadiums, sports fields)
Rural - Urban fringe:
• Shopping complexes
• Detached housing
• Lifestyle blocks
• Housing estates, State housing
• Business/ Science parks
Urban Renewal: 2012 London Olympics
• East London has already begun to improve under the London Docklands DC. These schemes have improved housing, transport, parks and employment rates in the area. The new Canary wharf development is one of the most prestigious office developments in London, but is only a short walk from Canning Town (a part of London that was found to be the poorest in the city by the 2001 Census).

• A major reason why London was granted the 2012 Olympic games was its plan to use the event to regenerate Canning Town and Stratford. London's bid was made so that the long-term benefits of the event would out way the total costs and that children would benefit as adults from this development.

• The site chosen by the River Lea was originally industrial estates, university halls of residence, industrial wasteland and low cost housing estates. However being near Stratford is advantageous by being near the transport hub - nine surface & underground rail links and an international train station on the Channel Tunnel rail link that was opened in 2009 (Only 2 hours from Brussels and Paris). By creating the Olympic site many industrial sites and residents will have to be relocated - this means cleaning up the environment.

• After the Olympics the village (where 17,00 athletes & officials will have stayed) will be remodelled to accommodate 35,000 families and a further 9000 homes will be constructed. Also a new healthcare centre will be built and an academy school. Some of the sports stadiums will be dismantled and moved to an urban park. Though it may end up like Sydney and Athens where many properties are still unsold.
World Cities
The concept of World Cities came about in 1915 and was defined as places in which a disproportionate amount of the world's business is conducted. By the 1980's World Cities were financial/commercial centres rather than industrial centres. The Large World cities include: London, New York and Tokyo. Complex high-tech links between these major centres enable them to dominate business of a worldwide scale.

Economic characteristics
➢ Corporate Headquarters for multinational corporations, international financial institutions, conglomerate and stock exchanges that have influence over the world economy.
➢ Significant financial capacity/output
➢ Market capitalisation
➢ Major banks
➢ Cost of living
➢ Personal wealth e.g. number of billionaires
Political characteristics
➢ Active influence on and participation in international events and world affairs
➢ Hosting headquarters for international organizations such as World Banks, UN and NATO.
➢ A large population (usually over 7 million)
➢ Diverse demographic constituencies based on various indicators: population, habitat, mobility, and urbanisation.
➢ Quality of life standards
Cultural characteristics
➢ International familiarity
➢ Renowned cultural institutions (often with high endowments) such as notable museums, galleries, orchestras and theatres. A lively cultural scene, parades and street performances feature in the city.
➢ Several influential media outlets with an international reach
➢ A strong sporting community, including major sports facilities, home teams in major league sports, and the ability and historical experience to host international sporting events such as the Olympics.
➢ Renowned universities, international student attendance, research facilities
➢ Sites of pilgrimage
➢ Cities containing World Heritage Sites of historical and cultural significance
➢ Tourism throughout
➢ City as site or subject in arts and media, television, film, video games, music, literature, magazines, articles, documentary
➢ City as an often repeated historic references
Infrastructural characteristics
➢ An advanced transportation system that includes several highways and a large mass transit network offering multiple modes of transit.
➢ Major sea port and established rail networks
➢ A major international airports that are hubs for major airlines and Cargo planes
➢ An advanced communications infrastructure on which modern corporations rely on, such as fiberoptics, Wi-Fi, Cell phone services, and other high-speed lines of communications.
➢ Health facilities; e.g., hospitals, medical laboratories
➢ Prominent skylines/skyscrapers
➢ Cities' telephone and mail services, airport flights-range, traffic congestion, availability of water, train facilities, nearby parks, hospitals, libraries, police stations, etc.
A World City: New York
• Divided to five Boroughs: Manhattan, Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Staten Island.
• Current population of 8.2 million
• 37% are born overseas in NYC
• Population expected to increase to 17.5 million in 2015
• 1700 schools
• NYC has an estimated $1.28 trillion Gross Metropolitan Product
• Only 55% of households own a car
• Holds many attractions such as Central Park, the Empire State Building, Times Square, the Statue of Liberty and the American Museum of Natural History.
• Average household income is $75,809 per year in NYC, however 18.5% live in 'poverty'.
• Of the 17 million in the NY metropolitan area, about 5 million use the subway per day.
• 24 subway systems in NYC
• On average 100 million travellers use NYC's three Major airports.
• NYC has subways, buses, rail networks, airports, taxis, cars, bicycles, a ferry service and cable cars.
• NYC bid for the 2012 Olympics but lost to London
• Has many sports stadiums including Madison Square Gardens
• Has major media outlets like the NY Times and the Wall Street Journal