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AS Geography - Human Geography

Terms in this set (102)

- Demand shifts from childcare centres to retirement homes. This further decreases the incentive for people to have more children.
- Many elderly people are requiring pensions. This is draining public spending allowances of the government.
- More people are retiring later causing young workers to miss out on opportunities.
- Family members will have to take care of elderly relatives
- This means many young people miss out on jobs that are currently held by more experienced workers over the age of 65. This results in a rise in youth unemployment and unemployment in general.
- 70% of pensioners depend on state benefits for 50% of their income in the UK
- 5.4 million women in the UK are over 65
- 8% of people over the retirement age in the UK were employed
- There was 10.7 million people over 50 in the UK
- In 2009 in the UK over £62 billion was spent on state pensions

- Japan's birth rate sits currently at about 7.31 per 1000 per year (after falling from 10 per 1000 per year in 2001) and is far below the world average of 19 births per 1000 per year.
- The TFR in Japan is 1.3, one of the lowest in the world and has decreased from a TFR of 5 in 1928. This means the working age group providing income to help the dependents will decrease to predicted values of only 51% of the population 2040 - 16% lower than in 2008.
- As the population ages the more incidences of crimes against elderly are reported such as burglaries and scams. As the population ages the more incidences of crimes against elderly are reported such as burglaries and scams.
• In 1999 the UN reported that 10 million people were in need of emergency food supplies in sub-Saharan Africa.
• Severe drought, civil strife and insecurity in many countries have displaced large numbers of people and disrupted food production.
• 16 countries were reported to be facing exceptional food shortages with Angola, Somalia and Ethiopia the worst affected.
• The population of sub-Saharan Africa, with its high birth rates and falling death rates, is growing faster than anywhere else in the world. With 71% of the labour force in agriculture and 77% of the population living in rural areas, the income, nuitrition and health of most Africans is closely tied to farming.
• There is limited capital and technology, the use of new seeds, pesticides and irrigation. The whole agriculture is wholly reliant on unfavourable growing land. Much of the land has a low water-holding capacities, and are vulnerable to erosion. High evapotranspiration rates harm crops, and so do the unreliable rains that cause flooding one year and none the next. Droughts are also getting longer and more frequent.
• Land has been overgrazed and over-cultivated. This, together with the destruction of forests for fuel wood, has allowed accelerated erosion and desertification.
• Efforts to increase food production have been impeded by a lack of money for technology, tools and seeds. Even when money is given it is often diverted to unsuitable projects such as buying more cattle to herd on marginal land, and ploughing land better left with vegetation cover.
• Land is being used to grow cash crops
• Animals are usually attacked with flies and disease. Crops are often destroyed by pests such as locusts.
• To add to these problems many of these countries are facing civil strife, administrative corruption and the disruption of farming and distribution.
Land reform:
• Helps overcome inefficiencies in the use of land and labour.
• The redistribution of land has been tackled by such methods as the expropriation of large estates and plantations and distributing the land to individual farmers, landless labourers and communal groups; the consolidation of small, fragmented farms; increasing security of tenure; attempting new land colonisation projects; and state ownership. The success of these schemes has been mixed, as not all have increased food production.

The Green Revolution:
• The green revolution refers to the application of modern, western-type farming techniques to farms in developing countries.
• It is when new hybrids of crops are developed to become disease resistant, weather resistant, drought resistant, and to increase output per plant.
• In general, it has improved food supplies in many parts of the world, but has also created adverse social, environmental and political conditions. When population growth was outstripping food production, questions were asked about the usefulness of these new HYV's. This is due to high birth rates, longer life expectancies, more land devoted to commercial crops and mass rural-urban migration in rapidly emerging economies. At the same time there is growing concern over the adverse health problems associated with the use of pesticides on crops and these chemicals leaching into water supplies.

Appropriate technology:
• It's needed to replace the many, often well-intentioned schemes that involved importing capital and technology from the more developed countries.
• Appropriate technology, often funded by NGO's, seeks to develop small-scale, sustainable projects, which are appropriate to the local climate and environment, and the wealth, skills, and needs of local people.
• This means:
o No dams or irrigations schemes
o No chemical fertilisers
o No tractors - just simple tools
o No cash crops
• Between 1986-1991 50% of the population moved home.
• The average NZ household moves house at least every 5 years

North to south movement:
• Until 1900 the North Island's population had been less than the south island's (since the establishment of the colony in 1840). This was due to the gold rush in the parts of the south island and the absence of Maoris (which attracted farmers).
• Though by 1996 76% of the population lived the north island.

Rural-Urban movement:
• Between 1900-1950 the rural-urban drift accounted for a significant amount of the overall population movements. This was due to: increased industrialization of Urban areas, farms becoming less labour intensive, children in rural areas leaving for education in urban centres and not returning home, and a decline in the primary industry.
• In 1996 70% of the population lived in towns or cities in New Zealand.

Intra-urban and interurban movement:
• Most New Zealanders today are between or within urban areas
• In Auckland in 1991 most people only moved 1KM (25000 people) and slightly decreases with distance though 15000 people moved 16-20KM in the Auckland region.

Regional Migration:
• The main reason for inter-regional migration is for economic and job opportunities
• Most migrants concentrate in large cities, as there are more employment opportunities.
• Young adults move towards university towns in Auckland, Hamilton, Palmerston North, Wellington and Dunedin.
• Most elderly dwellers tend to move away to more rural areas offering sun, scenery, relaxation and cheaper living.
• Unemployed people move to cheaper living areas
• 2/3 of all new Zealanders move within regions.
• Most housing in inadequate
• Most must fend for themselves and survive by their own efforts
• 1/3 of urban dwellers in developing countries can't find/ afford accommodation to meet basic health and safety standards
• Many sleep on the streets, rent a single room or create shelters themselves
• Some of the settlements are improved over time. The government adds sewerage, water supply, and electricity and refuse disposal to existing shanty-towns (cheaper than making new houses).

• Only parts of the city have access to infrastructure
• Rubbish is rarely collected
• Drainage is inadequate
• Lack of electricity hinders industrial growth
• Emergency services are unreliable
• Shops may only carry essentials

Pollution & Health
• Drinking water is often contaminated with sewerage
• Disease is often caused by drinking water
• Many are malnourished
• Lack of pollution controls fuel the spread of respiratory disease
• High IMF

• Inadequate transport system
• Road networks unable to deal with a large volume of traffic
• High accident rates and pollution
• Traffic mainly consists of old cars, vans, trucks, overcrowded buses, carts, rickshaws and bicycles.

Unemployment and Underemployment
• New arrivals exceed the number of jobs available
• Manufacturing industry is limited
• Occupations limited to police, army, cleaners, security and the civil service.
• Many work in informal sector
• Informal jobs include street trading, food processing and local crafts
➢ Collapsing infrastructure: Many cities in the developing world do not have an infrastructure that is capable of dealing with the massive increases in population. In addition, the governments do not have sufficient funds available to maintain the facilities, let alone improve them. Particular problems arise because of the inadequacy of the road and sewerage networks - see next point.

➢ Increasing levels of pollution: Pollution of air, land and water is a major problem in most developing world cities. The drive to industrialisation brings with it inevitable problems, especially as legislation to protect the environment is often non-existent or rarely enforced. Furthermore, the hidden economy can add to the levels of pollution as small, unlicensed industries are set up in peoples homes or on rooftops. These industries release their pollutants into the air, land and water.

➢ Increased volume of traffic on poorly maintained roads: The water supply can also become polluted as inadequate sewerage facilities allow the spread of harmful bacteria. Indeed, death from water-borne disease (give examples) is one of the biggest causes of high infant mortality rates.

➢ Inadequate housing and services: Shanty towns display most problems typical of developing world cities. On arrival at the city, it is most likely that the migrant will find him having to create his own shelter, live on the streets or rent a single room. In Calcutta, "Hotbed Hotels" rent rooms on an eight hour basis, whilst in Mexico City, over ten million live in shanty towns.

➢ The shanty-town is likely to be found on inappropriate land: Maybe it is prone to flooding or is very steeply sloping, increasing the chances of a landslip. It could be on a piece of land that has been badly polluted by a neighbouring industry. The shelters made of wood & plastics, and high population densities increase the risk of fire.

6. The services will be non-existent or incapable of maintaining a basic standard of living. The lack of basic services like a clean water supply, rubbish collection and sewerage disposal mean that the risks of disease are very high.

➢ A lack of employment means that people have to look for other ways of earning money: In Manila, children scavenge on refuse sites collecting cans for recycling. As well as being unpleasant, the risk of injury is high and any cuts will become infected. Hospital waste is also dumped on the site with hypodermic needles adding to the dangers of serious infection. Children sometimes even have to work for unreasonably low pay in dangerous factories. Drugs, gangs and prostitution have also taken a grip in many shanty towns.
Solutions to any problem are made more difficult by the lack of available resources and the sheer scale of the problems faced.

1. Site and service schemes: Popular in India and Brazil. This is a scheme whereby the government will provide a site (a small concrete 'hut') and basic amenities such as water and sewer facilities. The migrant is given rights of ownership and then expected to complete the work at his or her expense. This is often done as a cooperative between groups of migrants. In other situations, the authorities just provide the plot and building materials for the migrants to construct their own homes.
These schemes are relatively cheap and give the migrants a sense of control over their future. They also encourage community spirit.

2. Rehabilitation: An alternative to this scheme is to provide the residents of shanty towns with the materials to improve their existing shelters. Residents are also encouraged to set up community schemes to improve education and medical services. Residents may also be given rights of ownership whilst local authorities come in and provide electricity, water and sewerage disposal. This has been tried in Bolivia and Pakistan.
It is a cheaper option than the site and service schemes but simply hides the real problems. The germs may not have been removed, the land still unsuitable and the water/sewer system still not adequate.

3. Housing developments: Some countries, such as Singapore, have embarked upon massive re-housing programmes, resulting in high-rise estates.
Large areas of shanty towns were cleared, tower blocks built and the shanty town residents re-housed.
One problem was people using the lifts as toilets - this was stopped when lifts were made sensitive to urine and locked on the offenders. Today, blocks are designed by architects and have management teams that keep them graffiti and litter free. This is helped by the strict rules enforced in Singapore, where dropping litter or selling chewing gum will result in a very heavy fine.
Each housing development is designed to be self sufficient, with shops and services and employment in light industry, such as clothing. They are also located close to Singapore's highly efficient rail system - the Mass Rapid Transport. This helps reduce traffic congestion, which is further reduced by strict quotas on the number of licensed cars and regular tolls on all major roads.
The housing and development board aims to provide every person with a home and has continued its building programme for the last 40 years.

4. Sewage rehabilitation: Several cities have taken on major projects to try and repair damaged water and sewerage pipes. This improves the safety and quality of the water in the city and would reduce mortality rates. The rehabilitation also goes some way to reducing the unemployment problems.
• The location of low-income households in cities in MEDC's are typically located in the inner city area in most European and North American cities. The location of households depending on income is best displayed through the Burgess Concentric Zone Model.
• This Model is based in relation to the bid rent theory, where the most expensive land is located in the Central Business District (CBD) where competition for land is high.
• Throughout the 19th and 20th century, low-income housing has predominantly built in and around the zone of transition (or the twilight zone). This zone is built around a zone of industry and manufacturing that encircles the CBD.
• High-density housing was built around this zone of manufacturing in cities such as Birmingham in the UK, to house the labour force that were employed in factories e.g. for manufacturing. In Birmingham many four roomed terraced houses on small sections were built in places such as Sparkhill in the inner city area, for workers in low paying jobs in the manufacturing zone of town. Plots of land around the manufacturing zone in Birmingham were bought to house, as many workers as possible, so costs of commuting time and costs would be low.
• This is still applicable today in Birmingham, where low-income immigrant families (predominantly Somalis and Bangladeshis) settle in low cost housing in the inner city area.
• Some of these areas have been gentrified e.g. in Highgate (NW of Sparkhill) and are now occupied by more upper middle class residents. Whereas low-income families have moved to cheaper flats on housing estates (built by the government) on the urban fringe, where land is cheaply acquired to house such a large amount of people needing cheap housing.
The inner city in MEDC's is generally characterised by minimal educational opportunities, high unemployment rates, high crime rates, broken families and overcrowded accommodation.

The inner city area was the centre for industry and contained small 4 room terraced houses to accommodate workers. By the 20th century industry had moved to the urban-rural fringe and overseas where labour was cheaper. Jobs and inhabitants vanished with them too, leaving the inner city to go into a state of urban decay. Today many problems occur in the inner city area.

Decay & deprivation is a relative concept depending on how deprived the area is in relation to more prosperous areas.
Inner city areas suffer
• Poverty
• Pollution
• Crime
• Overcrowding
• Poor housing conditions
• Unemployment
• Racial tension

Social Problems
• Properties have deteriorated
• High percentage of overcrowded households
• Higher death & infant mortality rates
• Lower life expectancy
• Social segregation - Racial discrimination
• Persistent unemployment - culture of poverty
• High levels of stress due to poverty - family breakdowns.

Economic problems
• Loss of business & industry - massive unemployment (51% above national average.
• Few people can afford to own their own houses or invest any money.
• Local authorities have little taxes so lack of investment in the local area.
• Environmental decay - spiral of decline.
• Businesses put off by high land prices, lack of space, high crime & traffic congestion.

Environmental Problems
• Decay & deprivation of factories - seedbeds for crime e.g. drugs.
• Lack of open space
• Dereliction and poor state of repair causes depressing environment.
• Air pollution
• Local watercourses often badly polluted by factories.
• In LEDC's low income households tend to be located according to Hoyt's sector model, rather than the Burgess model as development has only begun to occur fairly recently.
• Low-income households in LEDC's predominantly are located on the outskirts of a city where land is available but often built on illegally. However some low-income households are located in land that has been deemed to hard to build upon e.g. a hillside.
• An example of this division of households based on their wealth is displayed in the city of Rio Di Janeiro in Brazil, where 6% of the population in Brazil live in slums.
o Vast amounts of migrants from predominantly the rural poverty stricken north migrate to Rio to search for employment.
o Many tend to settle in established low-income neighbourhoods known as favelas on the outskirts, where the land is uninhabited and is not already built upon.
o Flimsy shacks or poorly constructed houses are often built here, and become densely populated.
o These favelas are usually located around pockets high-income households where they work in low paying jobs such as cleaners and waiters. However some favelas have developed on land closer to the city centre, which had previously been deemed uninhabitable.
o Many low-income households try to find land to build on as close to employment opportunities as possible. So often favelas are found in swampy land or steep dangerous slopes of the mountains (where often mudslides occur during heavy rain) that surround the city.
o Some even are located illegally on construction sites. Usually these settlements are built illegally without the permission of the owner.
• The low-income households in LEDC's tend to be locating where land is unoccupied and often unsuitable (can be also be dangerous) to build. The households also tend to be located around higher income households where they work in local service based jobs or in these high-income households as cleaners. Whereas in MEDC's low income households tend to be located in the inner city area near manufacturing based areas of town or in government built housing estates in the outskirts of town where the land is cheap.
• Since 1948 South Africa had been legally segregated, until it was abolished in the early 90's. However evidence of this residential segregation based on ethnicity is still evident today in Cape Town and Johannesburg.

• In 1970 70.2% of the 22.46 million population were black, 17.5% were white, 8.8% were coloured, 2.7% were Asian, and 0.8% were other.

• In 2008 79.5% of the 47.85 million population were black, 9.1% were white, 8.9% were coloured, and 2.5% were Asian.

• In 1950 the Groups area act ensured the different ethnicity groups lived in separate parts of town. The whites had the best residential areas. Buffer zones of 100m were put in place often along main roads or railway lines, to attempt to separate the three groups.

• Blacks who lived in the city since birth or worked for the same employer for 10 years were moved to newly created townships on the edge of town. The rest were forced to move away to newly created reserves and homelands (where environmental advantages were minimal). These homelands took up 13% of the land but held 72% of its population. Most Blacks here were only employed on one year contracts to prevent them from gaining urban residential rights. In the 70's they made up 3% of GDP.

• Today Europeans continue to dominate areas in Cape Town such as the area around Table Mountain and around the CBD. The Asian/ Coloured population live mostly around the commerce and industry zones of town. Whereas the blacks live mostly (Cape Flats) around the main roads and are separated from the Whites through these barriers.

• This is similar to Johannesburg where the white population are surrounded by roads to divide them from the black population that live in Soweto and around the outskirts of the city. In Johannesburg the commerce and industry zones divide the races.

• Today Africans still are the majority living in squalid poverty stricken conditions, with many from border countries fleeing into South Africa. Homes are mostly shacks with minimal furniture. Water supplies are shared by hundreds of families and roads are rarely maintained. Unemployment is around 40% in Soweto alone because commerce and industrial centres are built so far away to prevent them from gaining long term employment. Also transport is very expensive because of the distance. These shanty towns were meant to be temporary accommodation for migrant workers from the 'homelands', where black South Africans had to return to their homelands to apply for a 11 month contract to work for Whites in South Africa.
• Found on swamp/ marshland and steep mountainsides on the hills surrounding Rio de Janeiro. Usually they are built illegally on land that they do not own or land previously deemed unsuitable to build upon.
• A Favela is officially a residential area where 60 or more families live in illegally built accommodation that lacks basic amenities.
• Usually there is only one water pump for hundreds of families and many families need to carry water cans several times a day.
• Preferred sites are those near the main roads and water supplies. Sewerage is sometimes available in open drains downhill near newly built homes.
• When it rains mudslides and flash floods on the slopes can carry the flimsily constructed homes away and can kill many residents (200 in February 1988).
• Almost 1 million people (about 1/5 f the total population) live in Rio's estimated 750 favellas. The two largest, Rocinha and Morro de Alemao, have an estimated 100,000 people living in them.
• 95% of favela residents now have access to clean water and 76% to improved sanitation.
• The government has pledged a further $1.7 billion to help improve favelas and combat their problems.
• Crime (Prostitution, drugs, gangs), disease (Cholera, bugs, lack of access to healthcare to treat minor ailments), unemployment (many work in the informal sector) and a lack of education are major problems in these favelas.
• Favela homes are often crudely constructed with wood, cardboard, corrugated iron, plastic and bricks. They are dangerously built on land that is not their own. Electricity is often illegally tapped into.
• The Favela homes are often two rooms. One for living and one for sleeping.
The general tactics for the management of urban areas are:
• Slum clearance
• High-density high-rise housing - superblocks.
• Regentrification - only works in upper class areas.
• Site & service schemes.
• Building of New Towns & satellite towns.

Slum clearance - Manila
3000 shacks were destroyed in 2 weeks to make space for new development. Slum clearance is supposed to warn off migrants in rural areas but it can still occur. Slum clearance is not used as much now as the international community disapproved of it.

New Town - Brasilia
Brasilia was built to remove pressure from the triangle around Sao Paulo, Belo-Horizonte & Rio and to open up inland areas. It has a population of 1.7 million. The town has been built in the shape of an aeroplane.
Fuselage - Government buildings, commerce, culture etc.
Wings - Housing.
The town was built with a good environment. There is lots of open space and an artificial lake formed from dammed rivers. However, the town was built especially for motorists so they could get to work without traffic lights. This is dangerous for those who want to walk, as they have to cross 3 lane expressways.

Housing - Superblocks/superquadras
• Complete self-contained units.
• 9-11 apartment blocks housing 2500 each.
• Apartments are luxurious & expensive.
• Contains all the services needed.
However, there have been some problems. Brasilia is a bureaucratic city & so there is very little industry. Also there is little or no housing for the poor although there are already squatter settlements forming.

Site & Service Schemes
Improvement will be a lot faster with help such as aided self-help (ASH). The land should be legalised to allow people to make their own improvements to property. It would also help to bring in technical help from other countries.

Co-operatives have been formed to help improve the area. This means they borrow money from people they trust to improve quality of life & invest in the local area. 3 Areas:
• Upgrade housing
• Site & Service Scheme - common on the peripheries. In some areas it is unsuccessful, as there are less job opportunities & a poorer transport system on the outskirts.
• Core housing scheme - A step up from self-help. May include bathrooms & sanitation with a variety of different house types.
Rocinha, Rio

Self-help schemes have transformed the favela into a small city with brick housing. The local authorities have also added pavements, street lighting, electricity, water pipes etc. Shops & industry has also been set-up to create jobs, although mainly in the informal sector.
Similarly a project called favela Bairro £200 million has been set aside for improvements, Buildings have been replaced, streets made wider, pavements, and electricity etc. has been laid. Also labour has been used in the favela to develop new skills.
• East London has already begun to improve under the London Docklands DC. These schemes have improved housing, transport, parks and employment rates in the area. The new Canary wharf development is one of the most prestigious office developments in London, but is only a short walk from Canning Town (a part of London that was found to be the poorest in the city by the 2001 Census).

• A major reason why London was granted the 2012 Olympic games was its plan to use the event to regenerate Canning Town and Stratford. London's bid was made so that the long-term benefits of the event would out way the total costs and that children would benefit as adults from this development.

• The site chosen by the River Lea was originally industrial estates, university halls of residence, industrial wasteland and low cost housing estates. However being near Stratford is advantageous by being near the transport hub - nine surface & underground rail links and an international train station on the Channel Tunnel rail link that was opened in 2009 (Only 2 hours from Brussels and Paris). By creating the Olympic site many industrial sites and residents will have to be relocated - this means cleaning up the environment.

• After the Olympics the village (where 17,00 athletes & officials will have stayed) will be remodelled to accommodate 35,000 families and a further 9000 homes will be constructed. Also a new healthcare centre will be built and an academy school. Some of the sports stadiums will be dismantled and moved to an urban park. Though it may end up like Sydney and Athens where many properties are still unsold.
The concept of World Cities came about in 1915 and was defined as places in which a disproportionate amount of the world's business is conducted. By the 1980's World Cities were financial/commercial centres rather than industrial centres. The Large World cities include: London, New York and Tokyo. Complex high-tech links between these major centres enable them to dominate business of a worldwide scale.

Economic characteristics
➢ Corporate Headquarters for multinational corporations, international financial institutions, conglomerate and stock exchanges that have influence over the world economy.
➢ Significant financial capacity/output
➢ Market capitalisation
➢ Major banks
➢ Cost of living
➢ Personal wealth e.g. number of billionaires
Political characteristics
➢ Active influence on and participation in international events and world affairs
➢ Hosting headquarters for international organizations such as World Banks, UN and NATO.
➢ A large population (usually over 7 million)
➢ Diverse demographic constituencies based on various indicators: population, habitat, mobility, and urbanisation.
➢ Quality of life standards
Cultural characteristics
➢ International familiarity
➢ Renowned cultural institutions (often with high endowments) such as notable museums, galleries, orchestras and theatres. A lively cultural scene, parades and street performances feature in the city.
➢ Several influential media outlets with an international reach
➢ A strong sporting community, including major sports facilities, home teams in major league sports, and the ability and historical experience to host international sporting events such as the Olympics.
➢ Renowned universities, international student attendance, research facilities
➢ Sites of pilgrimage
➢ Cities containing World Heritage Sites of historical and cultural significance
➢ Tourism throughout
➢ City as site or subject in arts and media, television, film, video games, music, literature, magazines, articles, documentary
➢ City as an often repeated historic references
Infrastructural characteristics
➢ An advanced transportation system that includes several highways and a large mass transit network offering multiple modes of transit.
➢ Major sea port and established rail networks
➢ A major international airports that are hubs for major airlines and Cargo planes
➢ An advanced communications infrastructure on which modern corporations rely on, such as fiberoptics, Wi-Fi, Cell phone services, and other high-speed lines of communications.
➢ Health facilities; e.g., hospitals, medical laboratories
➢ Prominent skylines/skyscrapers
➢ Cities' telephone and mail services, airport flights-range, traffic congestion, availability of water, train facilities, nearby parks, hospitals, libraries, police stations, etc.