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The undulating form that gives Earth's surface its character and general configurations is called


Approximately what percentage of Earth's surface is exposed above sea level?

29 percent

The average elevation of the depth of the oceans is

-3,800 m (-12,470 ft)

An area that is a seismic gap

is overdue for an earthquake based on past earthquake frequency

The eventual catastrophic eruption of Mount Saint Helens was

related to seafloor subduction at the west coast of North America

Volcanic activity located away from plate boundaries is associated with

hot spots

Which of the following is NOT a result of extrusive volcanic activity?


Which of the following statements about shield volcanoes is correct?

The form from magic magma

Pulvarized rock and clastic materials ejected violently during an eruption are called

tephra, or pyroclastic

Explosive eruptions tend to build up

composite volcanoes

Volcanic activity generally doesn't occur

around the perimeter of the Atlantic ocean basin

A hypsographic curve

is a generalized curve showing Earth's surface by area and elevation in relation to sea level

The variety of surface features on Earth results from

gravity, tectonic activity, and weathering and erosion

Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust

is generally more complex in content and structure

The nucleus of old crystalline rock in each of the principal continental masses is called a

continental shield, or craton

Which of the following is correct regarding magma formed along a continental oceanic boundary?

The magma results in more violent volcanic eruptions than magma derived directly from the aesthenosphere. The magma has a higher silica content than magma formed from only oceanic crust. Batholiths may form from the rising magma.

High mountains consisting of tightly folded and overthrust sedimentary rock layers, as well as metamorphic rocks, are formed

during plate collisions

Domes can be formed by

up warping associated with magma movement (i.e. plutonic activity)

Which of the following can lead to the formation of mountains?

faulting, plate collisions and volcanic activity and exposure of plutons by erosion of surrounding landscape

Normal faults are associated with

tensional forces

When rock strata are strained beyond their ability to remain an intact unit, displacement occurs in a process known as


Molten rock that pours forth on Earth's surface is called


Volcanoes formed from silica-rich magma

are highly explosive and dangerous

A cindercone is formed from relatively______ viscosity magma with a ______ gas content.


Vertical elevation differences in a local landscape are referred to as


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