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20 terms

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Biology Miller

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autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumers
Adenosine triphosphate
ATP, the main energy source that cells use for most of their work. It is made up of three phosphate groups, a 5-C sugar (ribose), and an adenine.
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
pigment
light-absorbing molecules are found in chloroplasts, and are used by plants to gather the sun's energy
Chlorophyll
Light-absorbing pigment in plants and some protists that is required for photosynthesis; absorbs most wavelengths of light except for green. Chlorophyll A is the primary pigment in most plants.
NADP+
(Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), an electron acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
light dependent reaction
The first stage of photosynthesis where light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH; results in the splitting of water and release of oxygen; requires light
ATP synthase
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
light independent reaction
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. Also known as the Calvin cycle.
ADP
Adenosine diphosphate, contains less energy than the ATP molecule. It consists of 2 phosphate groups, ribose, and an adenine base.
How is energy released from the ATP molecule?
By breaking the bonds between the last two phosphate groups.
What is the difference between ADP and ATP?
ADP only has 2 phosphate groups. (They both contain an adenine base, and the 5-C sugar, ribose)
accessory pigments
Other pigments found in the leafs of plants these include chlorophyll B, carotenoids, and xanthophyll.
ATPase
The enzyme responsible breaking the phosphate bonds in ATP, allowing energy to be released.
What is the general, overall equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight yields glucose + oxygen
Why do we think chloroplasts were once free living organisms?
They have have an inner and outer membrane, and their own ribosomes.
Why are plants green?
They reflect green light.
What color of light do plants absorb?
They absorb all but green light.
What two terms are used to describe plants?
autotrophs and producers are the most common