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Terms in this set (15)
The main function of what two systems in the human body is to provide communication between the cells of the body?
The Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System
What anatomical structures make up the Central Nervous System
Spinal Cord and the Brain
What anatomical structures make up the peripheral nervous system?
12 Cranial Nerves and 31 Spinal Nerves
Functionally the PNS can be divided into two divisions. Name these divisions and their subcategories.
Afferent System: Somatic Sensory and Visceral Sensory
Efferent System: Somatic Motor and Visceral Sensory
What are neuroglial cells and what are their function.
Neuroglial cells are the support structures for neurons. They isolate and individualize the many diverse
pathways that may converge upon a given
Which cell type is more numerous, neurons or neuroglial cells?
There are 5 to 10 times more neuroglial cells than neurons.
Describe the anatomy and function of the different types of CNS neuroglial cells.
Astrocytes: Largest and most numerous neuroglial cell. Provide a supporting framework for neurons. Contact both capillaries and neurons
Oligodendrocytes: Have few processes. Responsible for producing and maintaining the myelin sheaths around axons in the CNS
Microglia: Smallest neuroglial cells. Macrophage of the CNS. Ingest and digest tissue debris
Ependymal Cells: Look like cuboidal epithelium. Line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
Describe the anatomy and function of the different types of PNS neuroglial cells.
Satellite Cells: Small cuboidal cells found in ganglia. Surround neuron cell bodies and the initial segments of axons in the ganglia.
Schwann Cells: Surrounds all axons in PNS. Responsible for myelination of peripheral axons. Participate in repair process after injury.
What are the functional cells of the nervous system?
What is the regenerative capacity of neurons? Which part of the neuron regenerates more easily.
The cell body is very limited in its ability to recover from an injury. The peripheral processes can be repaired or regenerated under the right conditions.
Describe the structure of a neuron including the various organelles found in the cytoplasm.
Dendrites are spindle like projections, Cell body is the main chunk, Axon is the long string connecting to other neurons, Terminal boutons attach to other neurons
What do the terms nuclei and ganglia mean in the nervous system
Nuclei is a cluster of neuron cell bodies in the CNS
A ganglia is a cluster of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
What is an Axon hillock?
A small conical elevation on the cytoplasm.
What is myelin and what is it composed of?
Phospholipid covering produced by Schwann cells or Oligodendrocytes that are around some axons. Increases the speed of the nerve impulse conduction. Also insulates and maintains the axon.
What is a node Ranvier, and what is its purpose?
A gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells. Controls ion flow across the membrane.
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