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Chapter 7 and 8 Test
Terms in this set (103)
why does climate vary?
patterns of global air circulation and ocean currents distribute heat and precipitation unevenly between the tropics and other parts of the world
3 factors determining how air circulates in the lower atmosphere
uneven heating of the earth's surface by the sun, rotation of the earth on its axis, properties of air, water, and land
regions of the atmosphere
what does the evaporation of water create?
giant cyclical convection cells that circulate air, heat, and moisture
produced by prevailing winds, mass movements of surface water
what do earth's major currents do?
redistribute heat from the sun, that influence climate and vegetation
how does water move?
2 ways the ocean and atmosphere are connected
ocean currents are affected by wind of the atmosphere and heat from the ocean affects atmospheric circulation
example of ocean and atmosphere interacting
when does el nino occur?
when prevailing winds in the tropical pacific ocean weaken and change direction
what contributes to the formation of the 6 convection cells?
earth's air circulation patterns, prevailing winds, and configuration of continents and oceans
where are convections cells?
3 in north and 3 in south
what do convection cells do?
lead to an irregular distribution of climates
what 4 gases play role in absorbing and releasing heat that warms the atmosphere?
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
what does the earth do with the solar energy?
absorbs it and transforms it to infrared radiation (heat)
natural greenhouse effect
The absorption of thermal energy by the atmosphere. It keeps the earth's temperature within a certain range and occurs in the troposphere
why does the earths oceans and lakes moderate the weather and climates of nearby lands?
because heat is absorbed and released slower by water than by land
what do mountains do to the climate?
interrupt flow of prevailing surface winds and the movement of storms
what does moist air do when it hits the mountains?
what does drier air do when it hits the mountains?
flows down leeward slopes and warms up and increases its ability to hold moisture
The leeward side (back side) of the mountain is dry because the moisture precipitates on the other side of the mountain.
what forms deserts and semi arid places?
large terrestrial regions, each characterized by certain types of climate and dominant plant life
how does climate and vegetation vary?
with latitude and elevation
low annual precipitation, lack of vegetation
A type of desert where it is hot and dry most of the year, have few plants and a hard. windblown surface strewn with rocks and some sand.
daytime temperatures high in summer and low in winter more precipitation than in trop deserts, sparse vegetation consists mostly of widely dispersed drought resistant shrubs or cacti
A type of desert where vegetation is sparse, winters are cold. summers are warm or hot, and precipitation is low.
why does it take deserts so long to recover?
slow plant growth, low species diversity, slow nutrient cycling, and little water
biome composed of large communities covered with grasses and similar small plants
why do grasslands persist?
combination of seasonal drought, grazing by large herbivores, and occasional fires
tropical grassland (savanna)
grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate
biome characterized by deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports many grass species
what has happened to most temperate grasslands?
converted to farms
cold grassland (arctic tundra)
A type of grassland that lies south of the arctic polar ice cap, are bitterly cold during most of the year, treeless, swept by frigid winds, and covered by ice and snow, have long and dark winters, and scant precipitation falls mostly as snow.
ground that is permanently frozen
human activities in arctic tundra
pipelines and mines
type of tundra that that occurs above the limit of tree growth but below the permanent snow line on high mountains; vegetation is similar to the arctic tundra but receives more sunlight and has no permafrost layer
temperate shrubland (chaparral)
Moderate/warm temperatures, close to ocean/coast, dry summers, mild and rainy winter, never snows, poor soil, dominated by shrubs, frequent fires
land dominated by trees
tropical rain forest
biome near the equator with warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth
broadleaf evergreen plants
Plants that keep most of their broad leaves year-round. Examples are the trees found in the canopies of tropical rain forests.
NPP of a rainforest
biological diversity of rainforests
temperate deciduous forests
biome, occupy regions that have warm summers, cold winters, and moderate precipitation, shed leaves in winter
broadleaf deciduous trees
These plants are often found in temperate deciduous forests. They survive cold winters by dropping their leaves and becoming dormant throughout the winter.
evergreen coniferous forests (boreal and taiga)
Types of forest that are cold and found just south of the arctic tundra in norther regions across North America, Asia, and Europe and above certain altitudes in the High Sierra and Rocky Mountains of the United States. Have long, dry, and extremely cold winters.
coniferous evergreen trees
conebearing trees found in evergreen coniferous forests
high, steep, rugged land that rises above the surrounding land
aquatic life zones
aquatic equivalent of biomes
distribution of aquatic organisms is determined by what?
2 types of aquatic life zones
saltwater/marine and freshwater life zones
weakly swimming and free floating organism
3 groups of plankton
phytoplankton, zooplankton, ultraplankton
includes many types of algae, "drifting plants," primary producer that support most aquatic food webs
consists of primary consumers which feed on phytoplankton, and secondary consumers that feed on zooplankton, range from single protozoa to large invertebrates like jellyfish
population of smaller plankton, responsible for 70% of the primary productivity near the ocean surface
strongly swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and whales
consists of bottom dwellers like oysters and sea stars
break down organic compounds in the dead bodies and wastes of aquatic compounds into nutrients that aquatic primary producers can use`
key factors determining the types and numbers of organisms found in these layers
temperature, dissolved oxygen content, availability of food, and availibility of light and nutrients required for photosynthesis
upper layer of aquatic systems where sunlight can penetrate
euphotic or photic zone
excessive algal growth causing cloudiness is called
marine life major life zones
coastal zone, open sea, and ocean bottom
warm, nutrient rich, shallow water that extends from the high tide mark on land to the gently sloping, shallow edge of continental shelf
2 examples of coastal zone aquatic systems
mangrove forests or coral reefs
NPP of coastal zone aquatic systems and why?
high because of sunlights and plant nutrients from the land
where rivers meet the sea-coastal wetland
coastal land areas covered with water all or part of the year
ocean currents driven by differences in temperature or by coastal winds bring water up from the abyssal zone
dimly lit middle zone, which receives little sunlight and therefore does not contain photosynthesizing producers
dark and very cold, lowest zone
abyssal zone organisms are
deposit feeders (take mud in and get nutrients)
NPP of open sea
NPP of upwelling areas
large natural bodies of standing freshwater formed when precipitation, runoff, streams, rivers, and groundwater seepage fill depressions in the earth's surface
4 zones of deep lakes
littoral, limnetic, profundal, and benthic
top layer near the shore and consists of the shallow sunlit water to the depth at which rooted plants stop growing
open, sunlit layer away from the shore that extends to the depth penetrated by sunlight, main photosynthetic zone of the lake
deep,ocean water where it is too dark for photosynthesis
inhabited mostly by decomposers, detritus feeders, and some species of fish, nourished mainly by dead matter
poorly nourished lakes
lake with a large supply of nutrients needed by producers
lakes in between the 2 extremes
water that doesn't sink into the ground
surface water that goes into streams
land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream
3 river zones
source zone, transition zone, and floodplain zone
headwaters, or highland streams are usually shallow, cold, clear, and swiftly flowing, cold water species
headwater streams merge to from wider, deeper, and warmer streams that flow down gentler slopes with fewer obstacles, warm water species
higher temperatures and less dissolved oxygen than water in the two higher zones
an area at the mouth of a river that was built up by deposited sediment and contains coastal wetlands and estuaries
lands located away from coastal areas that are covered with freshwater all or part of the time
examples of inland wetlands
marshes, swamps, and floodplains
NPP of wetland plants
high because of nutrients
fall and spring turnover
nutrient and water cycling that takes place in a lake; spring - snow melting and fall- end of the summer; massive decrease in temperature
area of shoreline between high and low tide; organisms must be able to deal with extremes
low, narrow sandy islands that form parallel to nearby coastlines; often have natural sand dunes
human impacts marine
overfishing, oil and natural gas harvesting/drilling, pollution
human impacts on freshwater ecosystems
pollution, overfishing, recreation
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