Introduction to Criminal Justice Court system exam
landmark decision
When a right is granted in a case by the Supreme Court it is usually referred to as a(n):
Felony courts
Courts of general jurisdiction are also known as what?
Eighth Amendment
The ____ Amendment to the Constitution prohibits excessive bail.
To qualify for federal funds under truth-in-sentencing laws, states must require persons convicted of a violate felony crime to serve not less than ____ percent of the prison sentence.
Sixth Amendment
The _____ Amendment contains the confrontation clause
A court of general jurisdiction
If you are charged with the crime of armed robbery, your trial would take place in which type of court?
U.S. Supreme court
What is the court of last resort generally called?
Circuit court.
Which of the following would not constitute a specialty court?
a. Probate court
b. Circuit court
c. Drug court
d. Mental health court
Concurrent sentence
What type of sentence did an offender receive if convicted of two or more crimes and the prison sentence is completed after the longest single term has been served?
The ____ is the report of a grand jury investigation which usually includes recommendation of indictment.
Consecutive sentence.
What type of sentence did an offender receive if upon completion of a five year term in prison for one crime, he then begins serving three years for the second of multiple crimes?
general deterrence.
By punishing an offender severely as an example to others achieves the goal of:
There is no court supervision of these programs..
Which of the following statements is false regarding diversion programs?
a. There is no court supervision of these programs.
b. Offenders are placed in diversion programs before their formal trial or conviction.
c. Pretrial diversion programs are intended to encourage community treatment participation by the offender.
d. Restitution may be part of a diversion program.
Appellate courts try cases..
Which of the following is false regarding appellate courts?
a. Appellate courts try cases.
b. Appellate courts review the procedures of the case to determine whether an error was made by judicial authorities.
c. The appellate court can order a new trial.
d. The appellate court can allow the defendant to go free.
The preliminary hearing.
What procedure is often used as an alternative to the grand jury?
is discriminatory to the poor..
Some scholars contend that bail is problematic because it:
To increase judicial discretion.
Which of the following is not one of the goals of sentencing guidelines?
a. To prioritize and allocate correctional resources
b. To reduce prison crowding
c. To increase judicial discretion
d. To establish truth-in-sentencing
screen out the weakest cases..
All evidence points to the conclusion that prosecutorial discretion is used to:
Using mandatory life sentences so criminals cannot hurt other citizens is the core goal of what?
indeterminate sentencing..
"Let the sentence fit the criminal" best describes the basic philosophy of:
All of these
Which of the following is a pretrial procedure?
a. Bail
b. Arraignment
c. Plea negotiation
d. All of these
Fifth Amendment
The concept of the grand jury was incorporated in the ____ Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Article 3, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution..
The legal basis for the federal court system is found in the:
Just desert.
Which punishment philosophy holds that criminal sentences should be proportional to the seriousness of the criminal act?
Circuit court
Which of the following is not a term used to describe a court of limited jurisdiction?
a. Municipal court
b. Circuit court
c. County court
d. District court
Preliminary Hearing
let you know what charges are against you. Plea bargaining
True Bill of Indictment
document issue when they believe probable cause
No Bill
No charges filed
Does the defendant get to speak at the Grand Jury hearing
No, the defendant doesn't get to speak at the Grand Jury hearing
Confrontation Clause
part of the 6th amendment; establishes the right of a criminal defendant to see and cross examine all of the witnesses against him.
Hearsay Evidence
testimony that isn't first hand but rather relates info told by a second party
Indeterminate Sentence
term of incarceration with a stated minimum and maximum length. Prisoner is eligible for parole after minimum. Individualized and flexible
Determinate sentence
fixed term of incarceration. Limits judicial disgression. Offenders know how much time they will have to serve.
strategy of applying power treatment so an offender will present no further threat to society
policy of keeping dangerous criminals in confinement to eliminate the risk of their repeating their offense in society
action or practice of awarding each person what is due them; compensate individual victims and society in general for theor losses due to a crime
capable or guilty of participating in a particular criminal offense
Victim impact statement
post conviction statement by the victim of a crime that may be used to guide sentencing decisions;
Brutalization effect
outcome of capital punishment that enhances, rather than deters, the level of violence in society. the death penalty reinforces view that violence is an appropriate response to provocation
6 major goals of sentencing
1 general deterrence
2 specific deterrence
3 incapacitation
4 retribution/just desert
5 rehabilitation
6 equity/restitution
group called for jury duty from which the jury panels are selected
Voir dire
process in which a potential jury panel is questioned by the prosecutor and defense in order to select jurors that are unbiased and objective
Challenge for Cause
removing a juror because they are biased or have prior knowledge about the case, or other reasons that demonstrate the individual's inability to render a fair and impartial judgement
Peremptory Challenge
dismissal of a potential juror by either the prosecution or the defense for unexplained discretionary reasons