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161 terms

public speaking

STUDY
PLAY
Stage fright
scared at idea of standing before a group to make a speech
• Positive nervousness
a zesty enthusiastic lively feeling with a slight edge to it
seven elements of speech communication process
o speaker o message o channel o listener o feedback o o situationinterference
• ethnocentrism-
the belief that our own group or culture is superior to all other
• ethics
the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs
• Name calling
the use of language to defame, demean or degrade individuals or groups
• Bill of rights
first 10 amendments to the U.S. constitution
• 5 guidelines for ethical speaking
o Make sure your goals are ethically sound o Be fully prepared and informed for each speech o Be honest in what you say o Avoid name calling and abusive language o Put ethical principles into practice
• Plagiarism
to present another persons language or ideas as your own
1. Global Plagiarism
stealing your speech entirely from another single source and passing it off as your own
2. Patchwork plagiarism
when a speaker pilfers from two or three sources
3. Incremental plagiarism
when speaker fails to give credit for particular parts, increments, of the speech that are borrowed from other people • Quotations- whenever you quote someone you must attribute the words to that person • Paraphrases- to restate or summarize an author's ides in ones own words
• Guidelines for ethical listening:
o Be courteous and attentive o Avoid prejudging the speaker o Maintain the free and open expression of ideas
1. Appreciative listening
listening for pleasure or enjoyment, like listening to music, comedy, or entertaining speech
2. Empathic listening
listening to provide emotional support for the speaker, like a psychiatrist or listening to a friend in distress
3. Comprehensive listening
listening to understand the message of a speaker, as when we attend class lecture, or directions to house
4. Critical listening
listening to evaluate a message for purposes if accepting or rejecting it, like sales pitch or campaign speech of political candidate
• 4 causes of poor listening
1. not concentrating • spare brain time- we can process speakers words faster than they talk to we are tempted to interrupt our listening by listening to other things 2. listening to hard 3. jumping to conclusions 4. focusing on delivery and personal appearance (Focusing on the speakers delivery or personal appearance is one of the major sources of interferences in speech communication process and we need to guard against it)
• active listening
giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speakers point of view
• How to become a better listener:
o Take listening seriously o Be an active listen o Resist distractions o Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery o Suspend judgment o Focus your listening • Listen for main points • Listen for evidence • Listen for technique o Develop note taking skills
• Key word outline
an outline that briefly notes a speakers main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form
topic-
subject of a speech
brainstorming
a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideasLabel a sheet of paper into 9 columns called People, Places, Things, Event, Processes, Concepts, Natural Phenomena, Problems, and Plans & Policies.
general purpose
the broad goal of a speech,inform or persuade
inform,
you act as a teacher who conveys information. enhance knowledge
persuade
, you're act as an advocate or partisan, You want to change or structure the attitudes or actions of your audience, get them to believe something or do something as a result of your speech
specific purpose
a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hope to accomplish in his or her speech
central idea(thesis statement)
a one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech(gist of your subject)_
Tips for Formulating The Specific Purpose Statement
Write the purpose statement as a Full Infinitive Phrase, not as a Fragment, 2. Express your purpose as a statement, Not as a question, 3. Avoid figurative language in your purpose statement, 4. Limit your purpose statement to one distinct idea. Stay away from compound sentences. Don't use "and" or "or", 5. Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or general.
Questions to Ask about your Specific Purpose
1. Does My Purpose Meet the Assignment? , 2. Can I Accomplish My Purpose in the Time Allotted? 3. Is the Purpose Relevant to my Audience? 4. Is the Purpose too Trivial For My Audience? 5. Is The Purpose Too Technical For My Audience? Dry and Technical speeches = sleep.
residual message-
what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech -
• Audience- centeredness
keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
• Identification
speakers trying to create a bond with their listeners by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences
• Egocentrism
tendency for people to be concerned and pay closest attention to those messages that affect their own value, beliefs, and well being
Stereotyping
creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of the group are alike.
• Demographic audience analysis
- audience analysis that focus on factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership, racial ethnic or cultural background
Situational audience analysis
audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as: the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience towards the topic, the speaker, and the occasion.
• Fixed alternative questions
questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives
• Scale questions-
questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers ( seldom,, very seldom , very oftern)
• Open ended questions
questions that allow respondents to respond however they want
• Audience adaptation before the speech
need to keep audience at mind every stage of the speech, must submerge own views completely. Try to imagine what they'll like and dislike
• Audience adaptation during the speech
things may not go exactly as planned on speech day, cant use projector, different room, ect.. but don't panic just modify things and audience feedback
catalogue
- a listing of all the books, periodicals and other resources owned by a library
call number
a number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where then can be found on the shelves
periodical database
a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines
abstract
a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author
reference work-
a work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers
general encyclopedia
a comprehensive reference work that provides information about all branches or human knowledge.
special encyclopedia
a comprehensive encyclopedia- a comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as a religion, art, law, science, music, ect..
yearbook-
a reference work published annually that contains information about the previous year
biographical aid
a reference work that provides information about people
virtual library
a search engine that combines internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data
sponsoring organization
an organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet
research interview
an interview conducted to gather information for a speech
preliminary bibliography
a list complied early in the research process of works that look as if they might contain helpful information about a speech topic.
supporting materials
the materials used to support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony.
Search engines
Google. Use + sign to get specific results
3 Criteria for Evaluating Internet Documents:
1. Authorship: is author identified and what are their qualifications? 2. Sponsorship: organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the Internet. 3. Recency: make sure it's up-to-date. Look for copyright date, publication date, or date of last revision.
5 Steps to Prepare for an Interview:
1. Define the purpose of the interview 2. Decide whom to interview 3. Arrange the interview 4. Decide whether to record the interview 5. Prepare your questions
6 Guidelines for Making an Interview Proceed Smoothly:
1. Dress appropriately and be on time 2. Repeat the purpose of the interview 3. Set up the recorder, if you are using one 4. Keep the interview on track 5. Listen carefully 6. Don?t overstay your welcome
Lucas's 4 Tips for Doing Research:
1. Start early 2. Make a preliminary bibliography 3. Take notes efficiently a. Take plenty of notes b. Record notes in a consistent format c. Make a separate entry for each note d. Distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas 4. Think about your materials as your research
supporting materials
the materials used to support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony.
example-
a specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like
brief example
a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
extended example
a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
hypothetical example
an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
statistics
numerical data
Using examples to enhance a speech:
1. Use examples to clarify your ideas 2. Use examples to reinforce your ideas 3. Use examples to personalize your ideas 4. Make examples vivid and richly textured a. Create a visual 5. Practice delivery to enhance your extended examples
Tips for using statistics:
1. Use stats to qualify your ideas 2. Use stats sparingly 3. Identify sources of your stats (to maintain credibility) 4. Explain your stats a. What do they mean? 5. Round off complicated stats a. To avoid complicated numbers in the speech 6. Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends a. Makes them easier to comprehend.
Tips for Using a Testimony:
1. Quote or paraphrase accurately 2. Use testimony from qualified sources 3. Use testimony from unbiased sources 4. Identify the people you quote or paraphrase
-mean-
the average value of a group of numbers
median
the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest
mode
the number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers
testimony
quotations or paraphrases used to support a point
-expert testimony-
testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields
peer testimony
- testimony from ordinary people with first hand experience or insight on a topic
direct quotation
testimony that is presented word for word
paraphrase
to restate or summarize a sources ideas in ones own words
quoting out of context
quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it
strategic organization
putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience
main points
the major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from two to five main points
chronological order
- a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
chronological order
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time patternNarrate sequence of events or explain a process
spatial order
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional patternFollow directional pattern (ie Left to Right) . Usually used in informative speeches
casual order
a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship(2 main points) . Can be used in persuasive or informative speeches
problem-solution order
a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem Used in persuasive speeches
topical order
a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopicsDivide into subtopics . Ex. Describing a person & subtopic would be their achievements . This order is used the most in any type of speech
supporting materials-
the materials used to support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony
connective-
a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them-four types, transition, inernal preview, internal summary and signpost
transition
a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another
internal preview
a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
internal summary
a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speakers preceding point or points
signpost
a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech that focuses attention on key ideas
Gain command of the three basic parts of your speech
The introduction, body, and conclusion.The most important part is the body.
Choosing your main points:
Should come from specific purpose statement or central idea of your speech . Be careful not to have too many main points . Strategic order of Main Points
Most effective order depends on:
Audience . Topic . Purpose
Different elements of an introduction and the function of each element:
1. Get the attention and interest of your audience o Relate the topic to the audience o State the importance of your topic o Startle the audience o Arouse the curiosity of the audience o Question the audience • Rhetorical question- a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud o Tell a story 2. Reveal the topic of your speech 3. Establish your credibility and good will o Goodwill- the audiences perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind o Credibility- the audiences perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic 4. Preview the body of the speech o Preview statement- a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body
o Tips for preparing the introduction:
o Keep the intro relatively brief. Not more than 10 to 20 percent of your speech o Be on the lookout for possible introductory materials as you do your research. File them with your notes so they will be handy when ready to use them o Be creative in devising your introduction. Experiment with two or three different openings and choose the one that will most interest audience o Don't worry about the exact wording of intro intil the body is finished. o Work out your intro in detail. Practice it over and over until you can deliver it smoothly from a minimum of notes. It will get speech off to a good start and boost confidence
Different elements of a conclusion and the function of each element:
1. Signal the end of the speech 2. Reinforce the central idea a. Summarize your speech b. End with a quotation c. Make a dramatic statement d. Refer to the introduction
Signal end of the speech:
?In conclusion,? ?My purpose has been,? ?Let me end by saying.? Conclusion is the climax of the speech. Use tone of your voice to signal end of speech. Use a dissolve ending.
o crescendo ending
a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
o dissolve ending
a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement
preparation outline
a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the tile, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech
visual framework
the pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speakers ideas.
-bibliography-
a list of all the sources used in preparing a speech
speaking outline
a brief outline used to jog a speakers memory during the presentation of a speech
The Speaking Outline
follow the visual framework used in preparation outline -make sure the outline is legible -keep the outline as brief as possible -give yourself cues for delivering the speech
delivery cues
directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech
denotative meaning
the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phraseSimply describes the object, person, place, idea, or event to which the word refers. Think dictionary definition. Ex: "School" means "a place, institution, or building where instruction is given."
connotative meaning
the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrasevariable, figurative, and subjective. What the word suggests or implies. Ex: "School" includes all the feelings, associations, and emotions that the word touches off in different people. For some, it may connote personal growth, childhood friends, and a special teacher. For others, it might connote frustration, discipline, and boring homework assignments.Connotative meaning gives words their intensity and emotional power. Poets use connotation to enrich their meaning.
A speaker's meaning must be immediately comprehensible.
It must be so clear that there's no room for misunderstanding. Ensure this by using familiar words, choosing concrete words over abstract words, and eliminating verbal clutter.Don't use big, bloated words where short, sharp ones will do a better job.
concrete words
words that refer to tangible words "Carrot", "Pencil", "Nose", and "Door
abstract words
words that refer to ideas or concepts Humility", "Science", "Progress", and "Philosophy" Abstract words = much easier to misinterpret than concrete words.
clutter-
discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
imagery
- the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, action or ideasCreate word pictures that allow people to "see" the haunted house" or "feel" the bite of snow against your face. Concrete words = key to effective imagery. They call up mental impressions of sights, sounds, touch, smell, and taste.
simile
an explicit comparison introduced with the word "like" or "as" between things that are essentially different yet have something in common
cliché
a trite or overused expression
metaphor
an implicit comparison, not introduced with the word like or as between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common
rhythm
the pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words
parallelism
the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases or sentences
repetition
reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentence
alliteration
repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words
antithesis
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure ex: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country").
inclusive language
language that does not stereotype, demean or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability sexual orientation or other factors
generic "he"-
the use of "he " to refer to both women and men
mixed metaphor
two or more incongruous comparisons are run together often with comic results
the four different methods of speech delivery:
1. Reading from a manuscript 2. Reciting from memory 3. Speaking Impromptu 4.Speaking extemporaneously
Nonverbal communication
communication based on a person's use of voice and body rather than on the use of words
manuscript speech
a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
impromptu speech
a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation
extemporaneous speech-
a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
conversational quality
- presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how may times it has been rehearsed
volume-
the loudness or softness of the speaker's voice
pitch
the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice
inflections
changes in the pitch or tone of a speakers voice
monotone
a constant pitch or tone of voice
rate
the speed at which a person speaks
pause
a momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech
vocalized pause
a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with -vocalizations such as uh, er, and um
vocal variety
- changes in a speakers rate, pitch and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness
pronunciation
the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language
articulation
the physical production of particular speech sounds
dialect
a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar or vocabulary
kinesics
the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication
gestures
motions of speakers hands or arms during a spee
eye contact
direct contact with the eyes of another person
the four different types of nonverbal body delivery
gestures, eye contact, movement personal appearance
8 aspects of vocal quality
1 pause 2 rate 3 vocal varitey 4 pronunciation 5 articulation 6 dialect 7 pitch 8 inflections
Objects
clarify ideas and give dramatic impact; informs the audience
Model
An object, usually built to scale, that represents another object in detail: if item is too large, small, or unavailable
Graph
a visual aid used to show statistical trends and patterns.
Line graph
A graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space
Pie graph
A graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns.
Chart-
- a visual aid that summarizes a large block of information usually in list form
Transparency
a visual aid drawn, written, or printed on a sheet of clear paper and shown with an overhead projector
Multimedia presentation
a speech that combines several kinds of visual and/or audio aids in the same talk allow you to integrate a variety of visual aids; Microsoft Powerpoint.
Photos
in the absence of an object or model; use large-scale photos.
Video
the detail, immediacy, and vividness of a video are hard to match; make sure it?s not too long and it?s cued to where you want to start it.
The Speaker(visual)
your body can be used as a visual aid by doing a demonstration; can help reduce nervousness.
Preparing Visual Aids
1. Prepare in advance 2. Keep visual aids simple 3. Make sure they?re large enough 4. Use easy to read fonts 5. Use a limited number of fonts 6. Use color effectively (don?t use red and green together or blue and green): can help increase comprehension by 78%
Presenting Visual Aids:
1. Avoid using the chalkboard 2. Display visual aids where listeners can see them 3. Avoid passing visual aids among the audience 4. Display visual aids only while discussing them 5. Talk to your audience, not to your visual aid 6. Explain visual aids clearly and concisely 7. Practice with your visual aids