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Cancer can be defined as

A) cells that never divide.
***B) cells that divide uncontrollably.
C) tumors only.
D) an extremely rare cause of death.

When the normal regulation of cell growth fails the result is

A) abnormal nuclei and damaged DNA.
B) cell immortality.
C) undifferentiated cells.
***D) All of these

Which is not a characteristic of cancer?

A) lack of cell differentiation
B) uncontrolled growth
***C) programmed cell death
D) abnormal nuclei

Genes that promote cell growth are called?

A) tumor-suppressor genes
**B) proto-oncogenes
C) telomerase
D) p53

In a cell with damaged DNA, the action of which protein will halt cell division

***A) p53
B) telomerase
C) oncogene product
D) all of these

The difference between a proto-oncogene and an oncogene is

A) They are identical
B) proto-oncogenes promote growth, and oncogenes are tumor-suppressors
C) proto-oncogenes promote cancer, oncogenes do not.
***D) a mutation

A tumor is considered malignant

A) when it is in situ.
B) if it is invasive and spreads.
C) if cells pile on top of each other.
D) if cells avoid apoptosis.

The migration of cancer from the original tumor is called

***A) metastasis
B) angiogenesis
C) carcinoma in situ
D) carcinogenesis

Oncogenes are found in

A) healthy cells
B) cells that have undergone apoptosis
***C) cancer cells
D) all of these

Which factor has NOT been linked to increased cancer risk?

A) viruses
B) diet
C) heredity
***D) cholesterol

Which gene is not a tumor-suppressor?

B) TP53
***D) All are tumor-suppressor genes

The majority of cancers caused by an environmental factor are due to

***A) radiation
B) pollution
C) smoking
D) alcohol

The majority of skin cancers are caused by

***A) ionizing radiation
B) radon
C) power lines
D) non-ionizing radiation

The most likely way to be exposed to radiation is

A) by fallout from nuclear bombs
B) via power plant accidents
***C) exposure to diagnostic X-rays
D) daily cell phone usage

The most common cause of cervical cancer is

A) due to radiation
B) from chemicals in the environment
***D) viral infection

How might viruses initiate cancer?

A) Depressing the immune system
B) Altering host cell DNA and cell function.
***C) A and B
D) None of these

Which diet(s) is(are) linked to higher cancer rates?

A) High alcohol consumption
B) High fat content
C) Low consumption of fruit and vegetables
****D) All of these

Free radicals

***A) damage DNA
B) protect against cancer
C) are found in citrus fruits
D) are anti-oxidants

How is cancer diagnosed?

A) screening tests imaging
B) tumor enzyme test
C) imaging
**D) all of these

The first and most important step in cancer control is

A) tumor-enzyme tests
B) yearly doctors appointments
***C) self tests

The best imaging technique for detecting tumors in connective tissue, the brain or spinal cord is

A) CAT scan
B) X-Rays
C) Ultrasound
**D) MRI

Prostate-specific antigen can be diagnosed by

A) imaging
B) screening tests
***C) tumor-enzyme test
D) genetic tests

Which of the following techniques of cancer treatment is not considered to be a "sledgehammer"approach?

A) surgery
***B) cutting off the blood supply to the tumor.
C) radiation therapy
D) chemotherapy

Why is radiation effective in treating cancer cells?

A) Radiation promotes cell growth so that healthy cells can overtake the cancer cells.
B) Radiation boosts the function of the immune system so that the body can remove cancer cells.
***C) Radiation is deadly to rapidly dividing cells and cancer cells divide much more frequently than non-cancerous cells.
D) None of these

Healthy cells contain many proto-oncognes.


All malignant tumors start out as a single mutated cancer cell.


A distinguishing feature of cancer cells is their perfect symmetry.


Telomerase is an enzyme present in healthy cells that maintains the tips of chromosomes.


The easiest way to avoid most cancers caused by an environmental factor is to avoid smoking any organic compound.


If you carry either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene you will develop breast cancer.


The RB gene is an oncogene.


The environmental carcinogens known as initiators cause cancerous changes in cellular functioning.


Genetic tests can detect the presence of cancer.


Eating fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while avoiding trans and saturated fats will lower your cancer risk


New cancer treatments target cancer cells and are less damaging to healthy cells.


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