He was a monk/priest/professor of theology who opposed the way the Catholic Church was being run by drafting the 95 Theses. Without meaning to, he started a reformation movement.
Dutch Renaissance humanist who prepared Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, was critical of the Catholic church and wanted to reform it from within. He also believed in free will over predestination., Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe, didn't support Luther.
"Scripture alone." It is the Protestant belief that all man needs for salvation is the Bible
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation
A general rebellion of peasants in Germany (1524- 26). They were inspired by Luther's ideas. Catholic and Protestant princes united to crush the peasants. Luther did not agree with the peasants. 100,000+ peasants were killed.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group in Geneva
English king who created the Church of England (Anglican church) after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval). He had 6 wives.
Act of Supremacy (1534)
Proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England, which meant that the pope was no longer recognized as having any authority within the country, and all matters of faith, ecclesiastical appointment, and maintenance of ecclesiastical properties were in the hands of the king.
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
St. Bartholmew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots ( French Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572, following the marriage of a Huguenot and a Catholic.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV granting religious freedom to the Huguenots
Thirty Years War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended thirty years war in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the holy roman empire to choose their own religion-either protestant or catholic
Catherine of Aragon
first wife of Henry VIII; Henry's wish to divorce her was what eventually caused him to break from the Catholic church; mother to Mary
the second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Elizabeth I; executed by Henry; a devout protestant
daughter Henry VIII took the throne after Edward's death and was devoutly Catholic, making England once again Catholic. She had many protestants killed.