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Recognized violation of cultural norms


the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law


attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior

social control

the organizations--police, courts and prison officials-- that respond to alleged violations of the law

criminal justice system

crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others; also known as violent crimes

crimes against the person

crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others; also known as property crimes

crimes against property

violations of laws in which there are no obvious victims

victimless crimes

a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant's guilty plea

plea bargaining

An act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime is known as


The attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment is known as


a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses


rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution

societal protection

later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes

criminal recidivism

correctional programs that take place in society at large rather than behind prison walls

community based corrections

Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crim

is a violation of norms enacted into law

A hate crime is defined as

a criminal act motivated by racial or other bias

According to Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes people, including alcoholics and drug addicts, who "drop out" of society?


According to Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a radical who rejects cultural goals and means in favor of some alternative system?


Based on your reading, it would be correct to say that biological approaches offer

a very limited understanding of crime

Both Albert Cohen and Walter Miller argue that deviance is most likely to arise among

low income youths

Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" as

a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self-concep

Gender figures into the study of deviance because

every society in the world applies stronger normative controls to females than to males.

Participating in the subculture that Elijah Anderson describes as "the code of the street" raises the risk that young people will end up

in jail or worse

Prostitution is widely regarded as one example of

victimless crime

Read the following four statements. Which comes closest to the correct view of the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes?

Biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes.

Read the following statements about the social foundation of deviance. Which statement is NOT correct?

Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere.

Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin extended Merton's theory of deviance by stating that crime

reflects not only limited legitimate opportunity but also accessible illegitimate opportunity.

Surveys show that about _________ of U.S. adults support the death penalty as a punishment for murder.


The only Western, high-income nation that routinely executes offenders convicted of serious crimes is

the united states

The recent Wall Street scandals, such as Bernard Madoff's swindling thousands of people out of billions of dollars, are examples of

corporate crime

Value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because

Most people who commit crimes have normal personalities

Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion that

mental illness is a myth; "insanity" amounts to differences that bother other people.

Using a Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that a capitalist society is likely to label which of the following categories of people as deviant?

radicals who call for basic change in capitalistic society itself

Using the terms of Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following terms would correctly describe a gangster like Al Capone who made a lot of money breaking the law?


Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the United States is about __________ what official reports indicate.

twice as high

When friends began to criticize Juan as a "boozer," pushing him out of their social circle, he became bitter and began to drink even more. Juan ended up joining a new group of friends, all of whom are all heavy drinkers. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates

the onset of secondary deviance

Which of the following illustrates the "medicalization of deviance"?

a girl's sexual activity being redefined by her psychologist as a "sexual addiction"

Which of the following is Erving Goffman's concept that refers to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?


Which of the following statements is consistent with the thinking of Emile Durkheim?

Deviance affirms cultural values and norms.

What is parallel form?

Parallel form is nothing more than making sure that sentences are written with balance and flow. By definition, parallel form or parallelism is a balance of two or more similar words, phrases or clauses. Parallel form shows that two or more ideas are equally important by stating them in grammatically parallel form: noun lined up with noun, verb with verb, adjective with adjective and clause with clause

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