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40 terms

Sociology exam more questions

STUDY
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Recognized violation of cultural norms
Deviance
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
Crime
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
social control
the organizations--police, courts and prison officials-- that respond to alleged violations of the law
criminal justice system
crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others; also known as violent crimes
crimes against the person
crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others; also known as property crimes
crimes against property
violations of laws in which there are no obvious victims
victimless crimes
a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant's guilty plea
plea bargaining
An act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime is known as
retribution
The attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment is known as
deterrence
a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses
rehabilitation
rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution
societal protection
later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes
criminal recidivism
correctional programs that take place in society at large rather than behind prison walls
community based corrections
Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crim
is a violation of norms enacted into law
A hate crime is defined as
a criminal act motivated by racial or other bias
According to Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes people, including alcoholics and drug addicts, who "drop out" of society?
retreatist
According to Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a radical who rejects cultural goals and means in favor of some alternative system?
rebellion
Based on your reading, it would be correct to say that biological approaches offer
a very limited understanding of crime
Both Albert Cohen and Walter Miller argue that deviance is most likely to arise among
low income youths
Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" as
a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self-concep
Gender figures into the study of deviance because
every society in the world applies stronger normative controls to females than to males.
Participating in the subculture that Elijah Anderson describes as "the code of the street" raises the risk that young people will end up
in jail or worse
Prostitution is widely regarded as one example of
victimless crime
Read the following four statements. Which comes closest to the correct view of the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes?
Biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes.
Read the following statements about the social foundation of deviance. Which statement is NOT correct?
Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere.
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin extended Merton's theory of deviance by stating that crime
reflects not only limited legitimate opportunity but also accessible illegitimate opportunity.
Surveys show that about _________ of U.S. adults support the death penalty as a punishment for murder.
62%
The only Western, high-income nation that routinely executes offenders convicted of serious crimes is
the united states
The recent Wall Street scandals, such as Bernard Madoff's swindling thousands of people out of billions of dollars, are examples of
corporate crime
Value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because
Most people who commit crimes have normal personalities
Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion that
mental illness is a myth; "insanity" amounts to differences that bother other people.
Using a Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that a capitalist society is likely to label which of the following categories of people as deviant?
radicals who call for basic change in capitalistic society itself
Using the terms of Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following terms would correctly describe a gangster like Al Capone who made a lot of money breaking the law?
innovation
Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the United States is about __________ what official reports indicate.
twice as high
When friends began to criticize Juan as a "boozer," pushing him out of their social circle, he became bitter and began to drink even more. Juan ended up joining a new group of friends, all of whom are all heavy drinkers. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates
the onset of secondary deviance
Which of the following illustrates the "medicalization of deviance"?
a girl's sexual activity being redefined by her psychologist as a "sexual addiction"
Which of the following is Erving Goffman's concept that refers to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?
stigma
Which of the following statements is consistent with the thinking of Emile Durkheim?
Deviance affirms cultural values and norms.
What is parallel form?
Parallel form is nothing more than making sure that sentences are written with balance and flow. By definition, parallel form or parallelism is a balance of two or more similar words, phrases or clauses. Parallel form shows that two or more ideas are equally important by stating them in grammatically parallel form: noun lined up with noun, verb with verb, adjective with adjective and clause with clause