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the branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life
a research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time
a research method that combines cross-sectional research and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time
critical period (sensitive period)
the time when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli
unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
series of movements in which an infant flings out the arms, fans the fingers and arches the back in response to a sudden noise
the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus
employ the mother as a kind of home base; explore independently but return to mother occasionally; distressed when she leaves and go to her when she comes back
display anxiety before separation and upset when the mother leaves; seek close contact when she returns but hit and kick her
parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children
patents who give their children relaxed or inconsistant direction and, although they are warm, require little of them
parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children and explain decisions and actions
Erickson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
development of individual's interactions; their understanding of each other; and their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society
the first stage of psychosocial development that occurs from birth to age 1 1/2 years, during which time infants develop feelings of trust or mistrust
the period during which toddlers (ages 1 1/2 to 3) develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged, or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
the period during which children ages 3 to 6 experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action
the last stage of childhood during which children ages 6 to 12 may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less sociable
the process by which a child's understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
children around the world proceed through a series of stages of intellectual development in a fixed order; movement from one stage to another when the child reaches an appropriate level of maturation and is exposed to relevant types of experiences
birth to two years; development of object permanence, development of motor skills, little or no capacity for symbolic representation
two to seven years; development of language and symbolic thinking, egocentric thinking
concrete operational stage
seven to twelve years; development of conservation, mastery of concept of reversibility
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
according to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own
when parents, teachers or skilled peers assist a child by presenting information that is both new and within the ZPD
the period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, usually beginning at approximately age 11 or 12 for girls and ages 13 or 14 for boys
psychologist that believed people pass through a series of stages in the evolution of their sense of justice and in the kind of reasoning they use to make moral judgements
Level 1: Preconventional Morality
the concrete interests of the individual are considered in terms of rewards and punishments
Level 2: Conventional Morality
people approach moral problems as members of society; they are interested in pleasing others by acting as good members of society
Level 3: Postconventional Morality
people use moral principles which are seen as broader than those of any particular society
a state of self-absorption that causes a teenager to view the world from his or her point of view; leads adolescents to be highly critical of authority figures, unwilling to accept criticism and quick to fault others
"crisis" caused by physical aging and dissatisfaction with one's life marks; little evidence
a broad, imprecise term typically applied to older adults who experience progressive deterioration of mental abilities, including memory loss, disorientation to time and place, and general confusion
disengagement theory of aging
a largely discredited theory that suggests that aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological and social levels
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