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Cell & Molecular Bio Chapter 4
Terms in this set (68)
The plasma membrane and cell contents with the exception of the nucleus
Thin fibers consisting of actin protein subunits; form part of the cytoskeleton
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
A temporary extension of an amoeboid cell that is used for feeding and locomotion
A stack of thylakoids within a chloroplast
A family of membrane-enclosed organelles occurring in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells.
Structures in the cell nucleus that consist of chromatin and contain genes.
The selectively permeable surface membrane that encloses the cell contents and through which all materials entering or leaving the cell must pass
The fluid component of the cytoplasm in which the organelles are suspended
Endomembrane System/Internal membrane System
The group of membranous structures in eukaryotic cells that interact through direct connections by vesicles
The contents of the cell nucleus
A cell that lacks a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles
A structural polysaccharide consisting of beta glucose subunits.
Proteins that help other proteins fold properly
The scientific theory that the cell is the basic unit of life, of which all living things are composed, and that all cells are derived from pre-existing cells.
The interior of the compartment enclosed by the inner mitochondrial membrane
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
An interconnected network of internal membranes in eukaryotic cells that lack ribosomes and is a site of lipid biosynthesis
The double membrane system that encloses the cell nucleus of eukaryotes
One of a pair of small, cylindrical organelles lying at right angles to each other near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of animal cells
Receptor proteins that bind to specific proteins in the extracellular matrix and to membrane proteins on adjacent cells; transmit signals into the cell from the extracellular matrix
Microtubule-Associated Proteins (MAPs)
Include structural proteins that help regulate microtubule assembly and cross-link microtubules to other cytoskeletal polymers
Structures in the nuclear envelope that allow passage of certain materials between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm
Glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix that bind to integrins
An interconnected system of flattened, saclike, membranous structures inside the chloroplast.
RNA that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, transcribed from DNA
Membranous organelles that are the sites of photosynthesis in eukaryotes
A device used to separate cells or their components by subjecting them to centrifugal force.
Cytoplasmic fibers that are part of the cytoskeletal network and are intermediate in size.
Uncontrolled cell death that causes inflammation and damages to other cells
Small cytoplasmic vesicles that move substances from one membrane system to another
Structure consisting of mainly of microtubules that provides the framework for chromosome movement during cell division
In eukaryotic cells, membrane-enclosed organelles containing enzymes that produce or degrade hydrogen peroxide.
An interconnected network of internal membranes in eukaryotic cells enclosing a compartment, the ER lumen.
The basic structural and functional unit of life, which consists of living material enclosed by a membrane
One of the specialized structures within the cell, such as the mitochondria, Golgi complex, ribosomes, or contractile vacuole.
Process by which cells generate ATP through a series of redox reactions where the terminal electron acceptor is molecular oxygen
The biological process that captures light energy and transforms it into the chemical energy of organic molecules
Prokaryotic organisms with a number of features, such as the absence of peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
The balanced internal environment of the body
Programmed cell death
The dynamic internal network of protein fibers that includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
An organism that lives inside the body of another kind of organism.
A long, whip like structure extending from certain cells and used in locomotion, with a 9+2 structure in eukaryotes
Organelles that are part of the protein synthesis machinery of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Hollow, cylindrical fibers consisting of tubulin protein subunits; major component of the cytoskeleton
The protein of which microfilaments consist
A large multi-protein structure that recognizes and degrades protein molecules tagged with ubiquitin into short, non-functional peptide fragments.
Colorless plastids that are used for starch storage in cells of roots and tubers
A cell organelle in eukaryotes that contains the DNA and serves as the control center of the cell
Intracellular organelles present in many animal cells
A small sac, especially small, spherical membrane-enclosed compartment, within the cytoplasm
The process by which DNA is duplicated
A segment of DNA that serves as a unity of hereditary information
The complex of DNA and protein that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes
Organelle composed of stacks of flattened, membranous sacs. Mainly responsible for modifying, packaging, and sorting proteins that will be secreted or targeted to other organelles of the internal membrane system or to the plasma membrane.
Microtubule-Organizing Centers (MTOCs)
The region of the cell from which microtubules are anchored and possibly assembled.
The structure outside the plasma membrane of certain cells that may contain cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan, or lipopolysaccharides, or other materials.
Extracellular matrix (ECM)
A network of proteins and carbohydrates that surrounds many animal cells.
Minute projections of the plasma membrane that increase the surface area of the cell
An organism whose cells have nuclei and other membrane-enclosed organelles.
Intracellular organelles that are the sites of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
An interconnected network of internal membranes in eukaryotic cells that has ribosomes attached to the cytosolic surface.
A fluid-filled, membrane-enclosed sac found within the cytoplasm; may function in storage, digestion, or water elimination
Structure involved in the organization and anchorage of a cilium or flagellum
Region of prokaryotic cell that contains DNA, not enclosed by a membrane
An organelle in animal cells that is the main microtubule-organizing center
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