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SOCL359 Exam 2
Terms in this set (73)
Sexual scripts, one of the major schemas in sex research, centers on what?
Which centers on
the acquisition of cognitive schemes that connect to sexual
desires and behaviors.
Studies find that both men and women attribute positive influences to pornography (true/false).
Attribute positive influences to
These positive effects tend to represent a broadening of sexual horizons such as what?
Such as learning new
forms of sexual behavior or finding new resources for fantasy
Recent studies also replicate older findings that pornography use is associated with quantitatively greater levels of activities such as what?
That pornography use is associated with quantitatively
greater levels of activities, such as masturbation, as well
as overall numbers of partners.
From the scripts' perspective, persons are engaged in defining situations as sexual through developing what?
''Organized cognitive [sexual]
Which they have learned and elaborated.
To what does their use of the term normalization refer?
What is meant by a sense of erotic empowerment?
The ability not
only to create or alter sexual scripts but also a desire to act on
Pornography use is more common among what groups?
Is more common
among younger adults and among those with greater education.
Their interpretation of the directions of these relationships is based on what?
Conservative point of view as desensitizing and contributing
to undesired effects.
For all four groups, the frequency of view pornography was related to the appeal of what?
Was related to the
appeal of the sexual presence of a third party (i.e., watching
other people engage in sexual activity both in porn videos and
watching them in-person, and in having sex with more than one
For the two groups of men as well as the heterosexual women, there was an association between the frequency of viewing porn and what?
For heterosexual women, the frequency of viewing porn was related to the greater appeal of what?
To the greater appeal of oral sex.
With the exception of which group there was a significant relationship between the frequency of viewing pornography and what?
The authors found a significant relationship between pornography viewing and the frequency of heterosexual coitus for each group except which one?
Significant relationships between the frequency of anal sex and the frequency of viewing pornography were found for each group except which one?
For which two groups was there a significant association between the frequency of viewing pornography and the frequency of oral sex?
Learning about what type of sex was most frequently cited in regard to porn serving as a source of erotic empowerment for the viewer—building up the confidence to try new things?
The greater number of partners with whom heterosexual women had oral and coital sex with was restricted to what group as opposed to what group?
Was restricted to ''significant others'' and did not reflect experiences
with a greater number of''casual sexual partners.
Generally the results were consistent with the authors' theoretical assumptions that porn can shape a person's sex life through what?
Sex life through the normalization
of sexual behaviors and a feeling of empowerment that
makes certain types of sexual experimentation more probable.
Individuals with conservative values may differ in their perspective from those who are more liberal in what?
Differ in their perspective from those who are more liberal (such as our participants) in their interpretation of the expansion of sexual repertoires as positive.
Greater acceptance of porn may be interpreted from a conservative point of view as doing what?
From a conservative point of view as desensitizing and contributing to undesired effects whereas those with more liberal sexual values see pornography.
Customer profiles of adult bookstores indicate that the majority of customers are what?
That the majority of customers are young (twenties and thirties), married, middle- and upper-class, and clad not in raincoats, but
in business attire.
Previous research has shown that the norms of bookstores are in place to ensure what?
The privacy and anonymity of each customer, which helps to
enable customers to ''hide'' or ''shield'' the act of visiting the store.
What are passing and covering as identified by Goffman?
Passing refers to efforts to control information about the stigmatizing characteristic and pass as a ''normal.'' Covering, in contrast, refers to an attempt to deflect attention away from the stigmatizing characteristic by making it less obvious.
The norms observed within stores include what?
Pervasive silence && physical distance between customers.
What is civil inattention?
"One gives enough
visual notice to demonstrate that one appreciates that the
other is present, while at the next moment withdrawing one's
attention from him so as to express that he does not constitute a target of special curiosity or design''
What is a primary method through which privacy and anonymity are maintained?
How does hardcore differ from softcore porn?
What is true of hardcore porn in the state in which this bookstore was located?
The legal restrictions likely had an effect on what?
Had a direct effect on the product inventory of the store as pornographic material made up only
a small proportion of the products stocked there.
What two rationalizations were observed among customers in the present study?
What two forms of denial of responsibility were observed?
Referentialization is a claim of what?
What is tertiary deviance?
What patterns in the primary stigma management strategies used by men and women were revealed in this study?
The customers who used accounts as identity management strategies were primarily women, whereas men were more likely to engage in the ''passing'' strategies and
the strategies identified by previous research.
What is the crux of the procensorship feminists' definition o pornography?
As set out in a model law drafted "the sexually explicit subordination of women through pictures and/or words."
What is the Achilles' heel of their antipornography law?
Its focus on the political dimension of sexual expression.
What is the fundamental viewpoint neutrality principle?
> Violates the 1st amendment.
> Hate speech
What is the Court's view on expression conveying discriminatory ideas?
Expresses bigoted or discriminatory ideas concerning any individual
or group, no matter how offensive, ·incorrect, or dangerous those ideas may appear to anyone, including even the majority in the community.
In what two ways does the feminist antipornography law's definition of suppressible sexual speech differ from the traditional obscenity concept?
1. First, remember that "the Supreme Court's definition of obscenity excludes any material that has serious literary, artistic, political. or scientific value.
2. Second and relatedly, the Court has held that, to be deemed obscene, works must be considered is a whole. Therefore, isolated
passages that meet the obscenity definition will not justify suppressing a work if, overall, it is not obscene.
Why do advocates of feminist antipornography laws protest the ideas that these laws constitute censorship?
Held that expression may not be restricted simply because it expresses bigoted or discriminatory ideas concerning any individual or group, no matter how offensive, ·incorrect, or dangerous
those ideas may appear to anyone, including even the majority in the community.
What has the Court recognized regarding the potential censorial impact of civil lawsuits?
May well have a more devastating censorial impact, as a practical matter, than criminal prosecutions.
What are some constitutionally recognized means of deterring a work's publication through private pressure?
By the threat or the actuality of damages in a civil lawsuit, the end result is the is the same.
What have publishers and booksellers suggested the impact of this type of antipornography law would be?
How does the standard of determining guilt/fault differ in criminal and civil law?
Are civil law cases immune from "double jeopardy"?
Which means that any publication could produce only one criminal conviction. In contrast, a single publication could lead to an -unlimited number of civil actions and damage awards.
What city passed an antipornography law in 1983?
This law authorized civil lawsuits for what four offenses?
1. Trafficking in
2. Coercion into pornography
3. Forcing pornography
on a person
4. Assault or physical attack due to pornography."
How does the "coercion into pornography" prohibition view coercion?
Feflects an all-encompassing concept of coercion, effectively decreeing that no woman may ever volunteer or consent to perform in
sexually explicit productions.
What was the fate of the Minneapolis law?
What type of support did the Indianapolis law receive from local feminist groups?
What lawsuit resulted from this law?
What did the Supreme Court rule in this case?
To what case has MacKinnon likened the Court's decision in this case?
To what case does Strossen liken it?
With what groups did the feminist antipornography faction work with in relation to the Meese Pornography Commission?
What remains the primary focus of swinging relationships?
Emotional monogamy, or commitment to the love relationship with one's marital partner.
Swingers have rules restricting emotional involvement with non-spousal partners (true/false).
Adherents claim that it enhances the relationship of the swinging couple in what ways?
Why is the attempt to combine sexual non-monogamy with emotional monogamy "deviant" from the western model of romantic love?
Which assumes that sexual and emotional monogamy are
mutually reinforcing and inseparable.
Jenks' (1985) explains participation in swinging as being associated with what?
The idea of sexual habituation suggests that _____ years into marriage what occurs?
Proposes a social
psychological model involving interest in sex, exposure to the swinging lifestyle, and organized
social interactions with swingers to explain participation in swinging.
At what point in their lives do most couples begin to look at the swinging lifestyle?
In their late thirties after the pressure of
childbearing, establishing a career, and finding their niche in life passes.
The subjects in this sample were predominately (and disproportionately I will add) of what race?
White at 90.4 percent of the sample. African-American's were 4.1 percent of those sampled, Hispanic's were 3.0 percent, and 1.5 percent indicated "other"
How did the swingers in this study differ from those in other studies with regard to political party identification?
To cut across the center of the political spectrum.
Swingers in this study were _____ likely than the general population to say that they are members of a religious organization?
Swingers in this study tended to take more _____ stands than the GSS population (a representative sample of the U.S. population) on controversial issues involving marriage and sexuality.
Make more liberal stands.
Swingers in this study were very typical of the general population in the U.S. in the importance they give to marriage and the satisfaction they get from their families (true/false).
How did swingers differ from the general population on the question of whether divorces should be harder to get?
Swingers also tend to reject traditional sex roles in their relationships to a greater extent than the
Swingers in this study showed _____ levels of marital happiness than did married couples in the general population.
For the swingers in this sample, swinging tends to improve the perceived quality of the couples' marriages (true/false).
Improves the perceived quality of the couples' marriages regardless of how satisfying it was before swinging.
The majority of swingers said that jealousy _____ a problem.
Does NOT seem to be as big a problem for swingers as one might think.
Swingers in this sample rate themselves as significantly happier/sadder than the general population.
The sample in this study is likely to be biased in favor of _____ and to under-represent ____.
The sample is likely to be biased in favor of swingers who have experienced success
with the lifestyle and to under-represent those who have dropped out of swinging or who have
had negative experiences with it.
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