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unit conversion process involving mole equalities


a substance that produces ions when dissolved in water, and therefore, conducts electricity


amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celcius

specific heat capacity

the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius


dissolved in water; not visible


the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves ex. CaCl2 (s) -----> Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)


area occupied by electrons within an energy level

polyatomic ion

a group of atoms that carry a charge


different forms of the same element with different physical characteristics

Paulis Exclusion Principle

no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers

Aufbau Principle

orbitals of lowest energy fill with electrons first


a particle of electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space


incapable of being dissolved in a given substance


capable of being dissolved in a given substance

Law of Conservation of Matter

in a chemical reaction, atoms can be neither created nor destroyed, only rearranged


a solid formed from an aqueous reaction; appears cloudy

empirical formula

A formula showing the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound


a measure of the ability of an atom in a compound to attract an electron

ionization energy

energy required to remove the most loosely held electron (a valence electron)

valence electron

electrons occupying the outer energy level, and electrons in unfilled "d" orbitals


having the same number of electrons

polar covalent bond

the unequal sharing of electrons

ionic bond

the attraction between oppositely charged ions

covalent bond

the sharing of electrons between two atoms in overlapping orbitals

Hund's Rule

one electron per orbital of equivalent energy before doubling up


a measure of compactness; D=mass/volume


an ion that carries a negative charge; X3-


an ion that carries a positive charge; X2+


an atom that has gained or lost an electron, becoming charged

atomic number

number of protons (H+)

mass number

total number of neutrons and protons

average atomic mass

weighted average of the atomic masses for the isotopes of an element


atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons, and therefore, different mass numbers


a measure of kinetic energy

significant figure

a number in a measurement

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