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First Semester Chem Vocab

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stoichiometry
unit conversion process involving mole equalities
electrolyte
a substance that produces ions when dissolved in water, and therefore, conducts electricity
calorie
amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celcius
specific heat capacity
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius
aqueous
dissolved in water; not visible
dissociation
the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves ex. CaCl2 (s) -----> Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)
orbital
area occupied by electrons within an energy level
polyatomic ion
a group of atoms that carry a charge
allotropes
different forms of the same element with different physical characteristics
Paulis Exclusion Principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers
Aufbau Principle
orbitals of lowest energy fill with electrons first
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
insoluble
incapable of being dissolved in a given substance
soluble
capable of being dissolved in a given substance
Law of Conservation of Matter
in a chemical reaction, atoms can be neither created nor destroyed, only rearranged
precipitate
a solid formed from an aqueous reaction; appears cloudy
empirical formula
A formula showing the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
electronegativity
a measure of the ability of an atom in a compound to attract an electron
ionization energy
energy required to remove the most loosely held electron (a valence electron)
valence electron
electrons occupying the outer energy level, and electrons in unfilled "d" orbitals
isoelectronic
having the same number of electrons
polar covalent bond
the unequal sharing of electrons
ionic bond
the attraction between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond
the sharing of electrons between two atoms in overlapping orbitals
Hund's Rule
one electron per orbital of equivalent energy before doubling up
density
a measure of compactness; D=mass/volume
anion
an ion that carries a negative charge; X3-
cation
an ion that carries a positive charge; X2+
ion
an atom that has gained or lost an electron, becoming charged
atomic number
number of protons (H+)
mass number
total number of neutrons and protons
average atomic mass
weighted average of the atomic masses for the isotopes of an element
isotope
atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons, and therefore, different mass numbers
temperature
a measure of kinetic energy
significant figure
a number in a measurement