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Sociology Test Vocab - Chapts 1-3
Terms in this set (44)
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.
a culture's material objects, including art, structures, weapons, clothing, utensils and machinery.
consists of the ideas, values attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of a society. Non-physical stuff
patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies.
using one's own culture to measure other cultures, ordinarily in finding other cultures inferior.
the disorientation people feel when they move to a fundamentally different culture.
when you try to understand a culture on its own terms instead of judging it through your own culture.
the standards by which the people in a culture distinguish between what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
a reward for following a society's norms.
an expression of disapproval for failing to follow the norms, ranging from a mild to a very severe reaction.
the expectations or rules of behavior that a people within a culture develop to reflect their values.
norms that a society strictly enforces.
norms that a society does not strictly enforce.
a smaller group within a society that exhibits some behavior that is on the extreme of the society's usual norms.
a smaller group within a society whose values and behavior are in opposition to the society's norm.
a norm that is so strong that its violation is greeted with revulsion.
the extent to which a sociologist's research produces consistent results.
the extent to which a sociologist's research actually measures what it was intended to measure.
a statement predicting how two or more variables will relate to each other.
people changing their behavior because they know that they are being watched as part of a study.
a research method that collects data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions.
people who are the focus of a study.
research collected in numerical form that can be counted.
research that is subjective and often based off of what is seen in a natural setting.
a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject, and it is a way of conducting surveys on a topic.
data collected from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or survey.
researchers/sociologists going out into the world, meeting subjects, collecting data firsthand. Often involves going into a new environment and out of their comfort zone.
a causal relationship between two variables.
where researchers join people and participate in a group's routine activities for the purpose of observing them within that context.
the individuals selected to represent the target group to be studied by the researcher.
a sample in which every member of the target population has the same chance of being included in the sample.
a researcher who should be expected to manipulate research so that its results match the researcher's preferences.
a sample of people whose background suggests how they will respond to questions on a particular subject.
Questions that are worded in such a manner that for most people there is only one logical response
a researcher discards responses that do not match the researcher's preferences.
code of ethics
formal guidelines for conducting sociological research, consists of principles and ethical standards to be used in the discipline.
a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment, during the course of a study and in publishing results
people who share a culture and a defined territory
disciplines that study our social world by means of controlled and repeated
the social science that studies human culture, frequently by focusing on primitive or
the social science that studies human government and politics
study of society and human behavior (how the society shapes our behavior)
understanding human behavior through the social context of people interacting with one another.
August Comte and Positivism
August Comte is believed to be the father of sociology, and he coined the term positivism, which is the scientific study of social patterns.
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