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38 terms

Infancy

the first two years
STUDY
PLAY
norm
An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population
percentile
A point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100. Example: a child who is at the 50th percentile for height means that half of all children his age are taller and half are shorter.
shaken baby syndrome
A life-threatening condition that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, rupturing blood vessels in the brain and breaking neural connections
perception
The mental processing of sensory information, when the brain interprets a sensation.
gross motor skills
Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping.
fine motor skills
Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin.
reflex
A responsive movement that seems automatic because it almost always occurs in reaction to a particular stimulus.
SIDS
A situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months of age, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep.
primary circular reactions
The first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving the infant's own body. Includes reflexes and early adaptations.
secondary circular reactions
The second of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving people and objects.
tertiary circular reactions
The third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving active exploration and experimentation.
object permanence
The realization that objects (including people) still exist when they cannot be seen, touched, or heard.
information-processing theory
A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analysis, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output,
babbling
The extended repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins between 6 and 9 months of age.
social smile
A smile evoked by a human face, normally evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth.
stranger wariness
An infant's expression of concern-a quiet stare, clinging to a familiar person, or sadness-when a stranger appears.
separation anxiety
An infant's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves; most obvious between 9 and 14 months.
self-awareness
A person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual, with body, mind, and actions that are separate from those of other people.
social learning
Learning by observing others.
temperament
Inborn differences between one person and another in emotion, activity, and self-control.
attachment
According to Ainsworth, "an affectional tie" that an infant forms with the caregiver- a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.
synapse
The intersections where the axons of one neuron meet the dendrites of another neuron.
rubella
A viral infection that can cause blindness, deafness, and brain damage in a fetus if contracted by a pregnant woman.
sensorimotor stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (birth to 2 yrs) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
depth perception
Our ability to perceive the distance of objects from us.
trust vs. mistrust
According to Erikson, first stage of personality development in which the infant's basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care.
social referencing
An infant's use of another person's emotional cues to interpret unfamiliar events.
15-17 hours per day
The amount of time a newborn typically spends sleeping.
sensation
Anything that stimulates our five senses.
neuron
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
prefrontal cortex
Located in the anterior frontal lobe of the brain. Assists in planning, self-control and self regulation. Very immature in the newborn.
hearing
Already acute at birth, with infants turning their heads toward sounds, particularly a human voice.
vision
The least mature sense at birth; infants see only objects between 4 and 30 inches away.
taste
Present at birth; rapidly adapts to the social world.
Babinski reflex
When infants' feet are stroked, their toes fan upward.
Moro reflex
Infants fling their arms outward and then bring them together when startled.
Benefits of breastfeeding
Helps prevent illness--particularly allergies, ear infections, stomach upsets & asthma--provides antibodies against disease, provides a balance of nutrients that adjusts to the age of the baby
Adaptation
A sign that infants are thinking as they learn from experience. Includes assimilation (in which new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into old ideas) and accommodation (in which old ideas are restructured to include new experiences).