27 terms

Chapter 3: Matter - Properties and Changes

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STATES OF MATTER
All matter that exists naturally on Earth can be classified as physical form or either solid, liquid, or gaseous states.
SOLID
A form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume.Particles are tightly packed together.
LIQUID
A form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. Particles are not held in place rigidly.
GAS
A form of matter that not only flows to conform to the shape of its container but also fills the volume of its container. Its particles are very far apart
PHYSICAL PROPERTY
A characteristic that be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition.
EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES
Dependent on the amount of substance present. Mass, length, and volume are examples.
INTENSIVE PROPERTIES
Independent of the amount of substances present. Density is an example.
CHEMICAL PROPERTY
The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more substances.
PHYSICAL CHANGE
Alters a substance without changing its composition.
PHASE CHANGE
A transition of matter from one state to another.
CHEMICAL CHANGE
A process that involves one or more substances changing into new substances.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
States that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction - it is conserved.
MIXTURE
A combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.
HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE
A mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct.
HOMOGENOUS MIXTURE
A mixture that has constant composition throughout; it always has a single phrase.
SOLUTIONS
Homogenous mixtures.
FILTRATION
A technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid.
DISTILLATION
A separation technique that is based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved.
CRYSTALLIZATION
A separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance.
SUBLIMATION
A process during which a solid changes to vapor without melting, i.e. without going through the liquid phase.
CHROMATOGRAPHY
A technique that separates the components of a mixture (called the mobile phase) based on the ability of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material (called the stationary phase).
ELEMENT
A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
PERIODIC TABLE
Organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups or families. Elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties.
COMPOUND
Made up of two or more different elements that are combined chemically.
LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
States that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass, no matter how large or small the sample.
LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
States that when different compounds are formed bu a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers.
PERCENT BY MASS
The ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound expressed as a percentage.