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Prince von Metternich

Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Accomplishments: Restored all monarchs, returned France to its former borders, restored the Bourbon monarchy, declared a balance of power in Europe.
There was 40 years of peace, but harsh rule.
Also inspired the Democratic Revolution (1830-1848)


Beliefs: men by nature are good, but are influenced by society, men are capable of fast progress, change is normal and should occur frequently, and the government should represent what is used to improve man's conditions
Fully Supports nationalism


Beliefs: Men are inherently evil, need a strong government to be authoritative, main role of government to maintain law and order/stability, and are opposed to quick and dramatic changes

Colombian Exchange

An exchange of several diseases (such as small pox, measles), vegetables, fruits, and slaves between the Americas and Europe.

Black Legend

Concept that Spanish conquerors merely tortured and murdered Indians, stole gold and infected them with smallpox, leaving nothing of benefit


A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry


A person of mixed African and European ancestry


descendants of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status

Toussaint l'Overture

1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.

Miguel Hildago

A creole priest who lived in Mexico and lead the peasants to revolution, and eventually independence

Simón Bolivar

The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. "The Liberator"
The current country of Bolivia is named after him

José de San Martin

South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru.

Democratic Revolutions of 1848

The revolutions that occured in Europe after the American and French revolutions. The first phase included Greece and Belgium, which both gained independence due to the use of nationalism in their revolutions. However, the second phase of the revolutions did not succeed because the Catholic Church did not support it and the lower classes did not want to be involved.

Quadruple Alliance

Signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.

Liberal States

France & England. their social policies focus on ensuring that all who can, gain their income in the market; more concerned with preserving individual autonomy via market participation than with reducing poverty or inequality; the United States is a key example

Reactionary States

During the Congress of Vienna and the time period after, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were considered _______ ______ because they kept their monarchies and limited citizen participation in government.

Two Phases of the 1848 Revolutions



love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it; common cultures/customs

Giuseppe Mazzini

Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)

Young Italy

Several provinces, regions, and areas whose citizens would consider themselves loyal to that province


the italian nationalistic movement, which its goal of liberation and unification. secret societies had to form because nationalists could not support their cause openly. this term is the italian word for 'resurgence'.

Camillo Cavour

The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state


politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations (italy)

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)

Red Shirts

Garibaldi's army of 1000 volunteers

King Victor Emmanuel II

the king of italy who nominated a good prime minister, formed a new kingdom of italy of a centralized government with the control of him and Piedmont

Kaiser William I

William I of Prussia declares himself Kaiser of Germany at Versailles after winning the Franco-Prussian war

Otto Van Bismark

Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes. Very persuasive person. Fought 3 wars in 1864, 1866, and 1870.

Iron Chancellor

German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)

Blood and Iron

policy of German unification put forth by Bismarck; belief that industry & war would unify Germany


member of the Prussian aristocracy noted especially for militarism


Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church


This trade union Germany established helped support movement for German unification

Austro-Prussian War

War between Austrian and Prussian resulting in the unification of the northern german states along with Austria out of German affairs

Franco-Prussian War

Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.


Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.


literally meaning, "Caesar". German Emporer

Dual Monarchy

The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns

Ethnic Minority

a group that has different national or cultural traditions from the majority of the population

the Sick Man of Europe

nickname given to the Ottoman Empire because of the frequent ethnic revolts and the rest of Europe picking away at it.

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