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41 terms

Reaction, Revolution, Nationalism

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Prince von Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Accomplishments: Restored all monarchs, returned France to its former borders, restored the Bourbon monarchy, declared a balance of power in Europe.
There was 40 years of peace, but harsh rule.
Also inspired the Democratic Revolution (1830-1848)
Liberals
Beliefs: men by nature are good, but are influenced by society, men are capable of fast progress, change is normal and should occur frequently, and the government should represent what is used to improve man's conditions
Fully Supports nationalism
Conservatives
Beliefs: Men are inherently evil, need a strong government to be authoritative, main role of government to maintain law and order/stability, and are opposed to quick and dramatic changes
Colombian Exchange
An exchange of several diseases (such as small pox, measles), vegetables, fruits, and slaves between the Americas and Europe.
Black Legend
Concept that Spanish conquerors merely tortured and murdered Indians, stole gold and infected them with smallpox, leaving nothing of benefit
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry
Mulattos
A person of mixed African and European ancestry
Creoles
descendants of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Toussaint l'Overture
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
Miguel Hildago
A creole priest who lived in Mexico and lead the peasants to revolution, and eventually independence
Simón Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. "The Liberator"
The current country of Bolivia is named after him
José de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru.
Democratic Revolutions of 1848
The revolutions that occured in Europe after the American and French revolutions. The first phase included Greece and Belgium, which both gained independence due to the use of nationalism in their revolutions. However, the second phase of the revolutions did not succeed because the Catholic Church did not support it and the lower classes did not want to be involved.
Quadruple Alliance
Signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
Liberal States
France & England. their social policies focus on ensuring that all who can, gain their income in the market; more concerned with preserving individual autonomy via market participation than with reducing poverty or inequality; the United States is a key example
Reactionary States
During the Congress of Vienna and the time period after, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were considered _______ ______ because they kept their monarchies and limited citizen participation in government.
Two Phases of the 1848 Revolutions
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Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it; common cultures/customs
Giuseppe Mazzini
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)
Young Italy
Several provinces, regions, and areas whose citizens would consider themselves loyal to that province
Risorgimento
the italian nationalistic movement, which its goal of liberation and unification. secret societies had to form because nationalists could not support their cause openly. this term is the italian word for 'resurgence'.
Camillo Cavour
The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state
Realpolitik
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations (italy)
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Red Shirts
Garibaldi's army of 1000 volunteers
King Victor Emmanuel II
the king of italy who nominated a good prime minister, formed a new kingdom of italy of a centralized government with the control of him and Piedmont
Kaiser William I
William I of Prussia declares himself Kaiser of Germany at Versailles after winning the Franco-Prussian war
Otto Van Bismark
Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes. Very persuasive person. Fought 3 wars in 1864, 1866, and 1870.
Iron Chancellor
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
Blood and Iron
policy of German unification put forth by Bismarck; belief that industry & war would unify Germany
Junker
member of the Prussian aristocracy noted especially for militarism
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church
Zollervein
This trade union Germany established helped support movement for German unification
Austro-Prussian War
War between Austrian and Prussian resulting in the unification of the northern german states along with Austria out of German affairs
Franco-Prussian War
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.
Reichstag
Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.
Kaiser
literally meaning, "Caesar". German Emporer
Dual Monarchy
The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns
Ethnic Minority
a group that has different national or cultural traditions from the majority of the population
the Sick Man of Europe
nickname given to the Ottoman Empire because of the frequent ethnic revolts and the rest of Europe picking away at it.