Natural Hazards-Chapter 2
Terms in this set (63)
A measure of water volume in which 1 acre of surface is covered 1 foot deep.
Using the actual processes operating on earth today to interpret the past; not inventing unrecognized processes to explain the past.
The layer of the Earth just below the lithosphere in which isostatic adjustments take place. The rocks here deform readily and flow slowly.
Behavior of material whereby stress causes abrupt fracture.
The quality of being able to float, usually on water or rock.
A temperature scale that divides the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100°.
Conversion from Fahrenheit is C=5/9(F-32)
The movement of continents across the face of the Earth, including their splitting apart and recombining into new continents.
A process of heat transfer by whereby hot material at depth rises upward due to its lower density while cooler material sinks because of its higher density.
A linear area where plates collide and move closer together. This is a zone of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain ranges, and deep-ocean trenches.
The central zone or nucleus of Earth about 1,800 miles below the surface. The core is made mostly of iron and nickel and exists as a solid inner zone surrounded by a liquid outer shell. Earth's magnetic field originates within the core.
The outermost layer of the lithosphere, composed of relatively low-density materials. The continental crust has lower density than the oceanic crust.
The temperature above which a mineral will not be magnetic.
A linear zone formed where plates pull apart, as at a spreading center.
Behavior of material whereby stress causes permanent flow or strain.
Behavior of material whereby stress causes deformation that is recoverable; when stress stops, the material returns to its original state.
Distinct varieties of matter; an atom is the smallest unit of an element.
The point on the surface of the Earth directly above a fault movement (i.e., earthquake location)
Temperature scale in which the boiling point is 212° and the freezing point of water is 32°. Conversion from centigrade is F=9/5C+32
Implies a flowing of any material, from gases to highly viscous magma, to something that usually is solid but may be mobilized by heating.
Evidence of former life, including bones, shells, teeth, leaves, and footprints.
A southern supercontinent that included South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, and India during Jurassic time.
The length of time needed for half of a radioactive sample to lose its radioactivity via decay.
A place on Earth where a plume of magma has risen upward from the mantle and through a plate to reach the surface.
Rock formed by the solidification (crystallization) of magma.
The condition of floatational equilibrium wherein the Earth's crust floats upward or downward as loads are removed or added.
Reference lines that encircle Earth parallel to the equator. The equator is 0° latitude, and the other lines are proportioned up to 90°N (North Pole) or 90°S (South Pole). Perpendicular to Longitude.
A northern supercontinent that included most of North America, Greenland, Europe, and Asia (excluding India) from about 180 to 75 million years ago.
Magma flows and the Earth's surface.
Implies a flow characteristic of water. It has a definite volume but no definite shape.
The outer rigid shell of the earth that lies above the asthenosphere and below the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
Molten or liquid rock material. It crystallizes (solidifies) on the Earth's surface as volcanic rock and at depth as plutonic rock.
A region where magnetic forces affect any magnetized bodies or electric currents. Earth is surrounded by a magnetic field.
The point where Earth's magnetic field flows back into the ground. Currently, this point is near the North Pole.
A group of physical phenomena associated with moving electricity.
The largest zone of Earth, comprising 83% by volume and 67% by mass.
(1) The mantle from the base of the asthenosphere to the top of the core.
(2) The atmospheric layer above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere.
Splitting the nucleus of an atom, with the resultant release of energy , neutrons, and large daughter products.
Combining smaller atoms to make larger atoms, with a resultant release of energy.
A supercontinent that existed during Late Paleozoic time when all the continents were unified into a single landmass.
A massive, single ocean that occupied 60% of Earth's surface in Late Paleozoic time.
The behavior of a material that flows as a fluid (liquid) over time, but is strong (solid ) at a movement in time.
A piece of lithosphere that moves atop the asthenosphere. There are a dozen large plates and many smaller ones.
The description of the movement of plates and the effects of plate formation, collision, subduction, and slide-past.
An arm of magma rising upward from the mantle.
Unstable element containing excess subatomic particles that are emitted to achieve a smaller, stable atom.
An organism-built structure or current-deposited mound of CaCo3 material (limestone)
A volcanic mountain range that lies along the spreading centers on the floors of the oceans.
Where tectonic plates pull apart, magma wells up and solidifies to create volcanic mountains, which in turn are pulled apart as new ocean floor.
Fragments of material of either inorganic or organic origin. Sizes (in descending order) are: gravel, sand, silt, and clay. A mixture of silt and clay creates mud.
Energy emitted from the Sun mostly in the infrared, visible light, and ultraviolet wavelengths.
The site where plates pull apart and magma flows upward to fill the gap and them solidifies as new lithosphere/ocean floor.
A change in the form or size of a body due to external forces.
External forces acting on masses or along surfaces; forces include shear, tension, and compression.
The process of one lithospheric plate descending beneath another one.
New lithosphere forms at oceanic volcanic ridges, the lithospheric plates spread apart to open ocean basins, and then the oceanic plates are reabsorbed into the mantle at subduction zones.
The deformation and movement within the Earth's outer layers.
Gravitational attraction between the Earth, Moon, and Sun stretches the solid mass of the Earth and converts some energy from Earth's rotation into heat.
The shape of Earth's surface both above and below sea level.
A strike-slip fault that connects the ends of two offset segments of plate edges, such as spreading centers or subduction zones.
The elongate and narrow troughs where ocean water can be more than twice as deep as usual. Trenches mark the down-going edges of subducting plates.
The concept that the same laws and processes acting on and within Earth throughout geologic time are the same laws and processes operating today.
Ease of flow. The more viscous a substance, the less readily it flows.
The stress difference at which permanent deformation first occurs.
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