History of Political Islam in the Middle East Midterm

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Young Ottomans
-secret society established in 1865 by group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals one of which was Namik Kemal bc they were dissatisfied with Tanzimat Reforms
-sought to transform Ottoman society by preserving the empire and modernizing along the European tradition of adopting a constitutional government rooted in Islam
-many believed democratic forms of government were found in the Quran
Crescent Camp (Halbmondlager)
-POW camp in Wunsdorf, Germany during WW1
-housed 4-5,000 muslims who fought for allied side
purpose: convince detainees to wage jihad against UK and France
Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905)
-Egyptian Islamic reformer, religious scholar & liberal reformer
-one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism
-disciple of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani who advocated for Pan-Islam nationalism in order to resist European colonialism
The Hat Law (1925)
-introduced use of Western style hats instead of the fez
-banned religion-based clothing like veil and turban while actively promoting western style attire
-part of secularization, larger mission to "prove" civilization to the West
-introduced by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahab (1703-1792)
-Sunni muslim preacher & scholar
-believed in "returning" to the original teachings of Islam thus ridding modern practice of innovation
-pact with Muhammad ibn Saud helped to establish first Saudi state, Emirate of Diriyah
-began Salafi (Wahabbi) movement
Hejaz Railway
-narrow railway from Damascus to Medina through Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia
-part of Abdulhamid II's Pan Islam and modernization program
-important unifying service for empire and provided Sultan military forces
-largely funded by muslims outside of Ottoman Empire
Sultan Abdulhamid II
-last sultan of Ottoman Empire to exert effective autocratic control
-declared first Ottoman constitution of 1875 which announced Islam as the religion of the state and gave the executive branch more power
-emphasized Ottoman Empire was an European Empire and thus equal to them
-appealed to muslim unity but allowed Europeans to encroach more and more on Ottoman Empire
al-Azhur
-Egypt's oldest degree granting university and renowned as "Sunni Islam's most prestigious university"
-today: chief center of Arabic literature and Islamic learning in the world
-mission: propagate Islam and Islamic culture
Haram al-Haramayn
-holy cities in Islam
-Mecca is the destination of the Hajj
-first two cities for Prophet Muhammad
Rashidun-rightly guided caliphs
-refers to 30 year reign of first four caliphs following the prophet's death
-caliphate: Abu Bakr, Umar, Utthman ibn Affan & Ali
-caliphs after the rashidun inherited the position bc caliphate turned into a dynasty
Namik Kemal (1840-1888)
-Ottoman Turkish writer, intellectual, reformer, journalist & political activist
-influential in formation of Young Ottomans & their struggles for governmental reform in Ottoman Empire
-influenced by Western relationship between government & people --> spoke out about centralizing government & people and so, was exiled and fled to Paris
-believed in representative assembly
Hasan al-Banna ( 1906-1949)
-Egyptian schoolteacher & imam
-founder of Muslim Brotherhood which worked to create self sustaining Islamic Nationalism without influence of Western Powers
-refused to attend al-Azhar as a child
-hated idea of secularism
The Trible School
-Istanbul school founded by Abdulhammid II
-goal: promote integration of tribes into Ottoman empire thru education
-curriculum focused heavily on religion & turkish language
The Arab Revolt
-declared by Sherif Hussein bin Ali
-goal: secure independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks & create single unified Arab state
-supported by British
-not successful bc most Arabs remained loyal to and fought for Ottoman empire
Ijtihad vs. Taqlid
-Ijtihad: independent legal reasoning, requires expertise in Arabic/theology/revealed texts/principles of jurisprudence
-Taqlid: means to follow, follow decision of religious expertise without examining their reasoning behind that decision
-reformers like Abduh and al-Banna preferred ijtihad bc important method in wrestling power of religious interpretation from ulema
The Mecelle
-French civil code of Ottoman Empire in late 19th & early 20th centuries
-first attempt to codify a part of Sharia-based law of an Islamic state
-ulema resisted bc believed word of god should not be codified
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