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Developmental Psychology Final Quizlet

STUDY
PLAY
Which form of death has occurred in circumstances where there is no electrical activity in the brain and the person no longer has reflexes or responds to vigorous external stimuli?
Brain death
What circumstances permit the determination that a person is legally dead?
When the brain stem is dead and there is no independent body functioning
In the United States and other industrialized countries, where do most adults die?
In a hospital
Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the philosophy behind hospice care?
The patient should actively fight death by avoiding pain medications and using all measures to prolong life.
According to research, which of the following attitudes was commonly reported by the loved ones of a terminally ill patient who chose a home-based hospice program?
They reported feeling a greater sense of burden.
How does thinking about time change in middle adulthood?
Thinking in terms of time until death rather than time since birth
One of your employees has just lost his spouse. What can you do to assist your employee and benefit yourself and your business in the long-run?
Give your employee sufficient time off to sufficiently grieve
Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about the fear of death?
Old age is the time when death is most feared.
Which of the following is NOT a stage in Elizabeth Kumlaut(u) bler-Ross's model of the psychological preparations for death?
Preparation
What is thanatology?
The scientific study of death and dying
According to the research conducted by Greer, which of the following groups had the longest survival rates from a terminal illness?
Those whose attitude was denial or a fighting spirit
Which of the following is NOT a function fulfilled by death rituals?
To help family members stay active and involved and therefore forget or ignore their grief
Which of the following circumstances of death would be likely to elicit the most intense grief responses, possibly including post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, from survivors?
A 28-year-old woman is murdered
With regard to death, older adults are most likely to fear which of the following?
The uncertainty before death, such as where they will die and who will care for them
Which of the following best describes ego integrity?
Coming to terms with the life one has lived and accepting the inevitability of death
How are older adults typically evaluated by management in the work place?
As being more reliable than younger employees
Phyllis' philosophy drives her children crazy when they go out in public together. She says, "I'm old and I can do what I want." Phyllis' lack of respect for conventional rules or expectations is consistent with the aspect of disengagement theory known as which of the following?
Increased individuality
What is the term used by gerontologists to describe maintaining one's physical health, mental abilities, social competence and general satisfaction with life?
Successful aging
Which of the following describes the component of successful aging that involves a willingness to learn new things?
Cognitive adventurousness
What is the term used for living in a noninstitutional environment to which appropriate modifications have been made for the elderly individual?
Aging in place
Mr. Jones is a healthy 75-year-old widower who lives independently on his comfortable pension. What factor is most likely to cause a change in his independent living status?
Development of a significant health problem
Which of the following is for elderly adults who need more assistance than is available at an independent living community, but are not in need of constant supervision?
Assisted living
Which of the following represents the normal expectation for a man in late adulthood?
That he will live with a spouse or intimate partner until he dies
Which of the following is the normal expectation for a woman in late adulthood?
That she will live alone, even if she experiences health problems or mild to moderate disability
Which of the following is true regarding the positive effects of marriage on physical and psychological functioning of older adults?
They occur among both women and men, but are generally greater for men than women
Who is likely to retire latest?
An individual whose work is challenging and interesting
What is the largest source of income for most elderly adults in the United States?
Social Security
What effect is retirement likely to have on health?
Little or no effect
Which of the following describes a move away from family that is aimed at benefitting from a particular feature of the location?
Amenity move
Which of the following is suggested by your text as perhaps the greatest obstacle to employment for older adults?
Employers' perceptions about older workers' ability to learn new job skills
According to research, what is the most common effect of activity upon later life?
Greater life satisfaction and morale
What is the fastest-growing segment of the population in the United States today?
Oldest old subgroup
What is currently the most widely accepted explanation for declines in memory among older adults?What is currently the most widely accepted explanation for declines in memory among older adults?
Loss of speed in central nervous system processes related to information-processing and memory function
Why will every industrialized nation in the world face a demographic crisis in the near future?
There will be fewer young and middle-aged workers to provide for the financial well-being of the elderly.
Which of the following is FALSE about the relationship between disability and activity among older adults in the United States?
Nearly all those over age 85 report significant difficulty performing basic daily activities.
Which of the following terms refers to the redundancy in the nervous system that enables neural pathways to move from one set of neurons to another?
Synaptic plasticity
What causes the loss of "computational power" and the appearance of symptoms of old age to occur?
Significant loss of dendritic interconnectivity
Which of the following is likely to be true of older adults who are experiencing hearing loss?
They may be perceived as disoriented or forgetful
About how long is the maximum human lifespan?
110-120 years
What effect do free radicals have on the body?
They enter into potentially harmful chemical reactions which cause irreparable cell damage
Which of the following suggests that all adults retain excellent function until their physical and mental functioning plummets in the few years before death?
The terminal drop hypothesis
What is the biggest single behavioral effect of age-related physical change in late adulthood?
A general slowing down
What does your text suggest about older women's sexual behavior?
They are more sexually adventurous and willing to experiment.
Which of the following are a group of neurological disorders that involve memory and thinking - affecting social, emotional and physical functioning?
The dementias
Which of the following is the BEST definition of Alzheimer's disease?
A severe form of dementia for which the cause is unknown
Which of the following is true regarding the incidence of Alzheimer's disease among people of African descent?
the disease is less prevalent in Africa, but in the United States African Americans exhibit higher rates than White Americans.
Which of the following is a likely reason that elderly men have higher rates of completed suicide than elderly women?
Men in declining health view themselves as a burden.
What is the single largest factor that determines the trajectory of an adult's physical or mental status beyond age 65?
Health
What is Erikson's developmental task of middle adulthood?
Generativity versus stagnation
Which of the following reflects the findings of Ken Dychtwald in a survey of more than 3.000 baby boomers?
Most plan to work into retirement, but to combine paid work with other pursuits
When a person is confronted with a task which they are compelled to perform but for which they are ill prepared, which of the following are they likely to experience?
Role strain
The person who is forced to take on responsibilities, which are in constant competition with each other is experiencing which of the following?
Role conflict
What does the term sandwich generation refer to?
Middle-aged adults who provide assistance to both their children and their aging parents
What is the likely outcome if grandparents sue in court to have access to their grandchildren?
Judges generally rule that the rights of grandparents are limited by the rights of parents to make decisions about their child's upbringing.
Kwan has been caring for her elderly mother for several years now. Kwan is finding that her own health is deteriorating, she and her husband rarely have time for themselves and she is becoming depressed. What is the term for these symptoms that Kwan is experiencing?
Caregiver burden
Which of the following best describes the nature of friendship in middle adulthood?
The social circle is smaller, but the friendships are as intimate and close as at earlier ages.
Which of the following statements best summarizes the stability of personality over time?
for most people, personality traits tend to be stable over time, but within some individuals there may be relatively large changes.
The statement "I don't like my boss but the hours fit with the children's school schedule" is more likely to be made by whom?
A middle-aged woman
Many potential employers believe that middle-aged workers are less able to learn new computer skills than their young-adult counterparts. This is an example of which of the following?
Ageism
Lauren used to work as a telephone operator. Recently the phone company for which she worked decided to go to an automated system. Lauren was laid off, making her what your text would call
an involuntary career changer
Phyllis has worked as an interior decorator for twenty years. Lately she finds little satisfaction in her work and wants to do something she believes is more meaningful, like counsel troubled youth. If Phyllis walks away from her interior design business, what would social scientists call her?
Voluntary career changer
Which statement is true regarding the retirement of the cohort known as The Baby Boomers?
Baby Boomers are likely to be in retirement for 20 years î far longer than earlier generations.
Which of the following best expresses Daniel Levinson's idea about development at mid-life?
The developmental tasks of mid-life are likely to cause a crisis when an individual's ability to cope is overwhelmed.
Which of the following is true of cognitive functioning and automobile accidents?
Young adults are more likely to get into an accident because of lapses of judgment and a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol.
How does aging affect memory?
With advancing age, individuals tend to remember fewer specific details of a story and more of the theme or meaning of the story.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding osteoporosis?
Men are unaffected by osteoporosis.
Adella has never had anything but perfect vision, but shortly after her 40th birthday, she noticed it was getting more and more difficult to read the morning newspaper î as if her arms were not long enough to hold the paper far enough away to get it in focus. If Adella visits her ophthalmologist, she will likely be diagnosed with which of the following?
Presbyopia
What is the condition that results from degeneration of the auditory nerves and inner ear structures, and an individual loses the ability to hear sounds of high and very low frequencies?
Presbycusis
Statistically, which of the following groups has the SHORTEST life expectancy in the United States?
African American men
Regarding cardiovascular disease, which of the following statements best describes the trend over the last three decades?
The occurrence of CVD continues to decline, but it is still the leading cause of death among adults in the U.S.
Which of the following represents the BEST example of the Type A personality characteristic that is most strongly linked to cardiovascular disease?
When Jack loses a business deal, he takes his anger and hostility out on other drivers during his evening commute.
Which characteristic of Type A personality is most closely linked to CVD?
Hostility
Which of the following is the second leading cause of death in middle and old age in the United States?
Cancer
Which of the following is one of the hypotheses as to why diabetes has a more devastating effect on minority individuals than on whites?
They are likely to contract the disease earlier in life so it has a longer time to adversely affect the body.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
White Americans have the highest rates of breast cancer.
What is the most frequently abused substance in the U.S.?
Alcohol
Question 14 (1 point)
Selective optimization with compensation
How does physical exercise help maintain cognitive abilities in middle age?
By maintaining cardiovascular fitness
Which of the following best explains the typical pattern of cognitive functioning in middle adulthood?
Individuals may maintain or even gain in skill on tasks that are highly practiced or based on specific learning, such as playing a card game.
What is the most likely explanation for the decline in sexual activity associated with mid-life?
The demands and pressures of everyday living
Which of the following terms was used by Levinson to refer to the underlying pattern of an individual's life at a given time, including balances and conflicts among roles, relationships, and behavior patterns?
Life structure
Which of the following is true in women who have paid employment?
They have more power and equality in family decision-making than women without paid employment
What component of evolutionary theory suggests that women and men have different mate selection priorities because they have unequal roles and responsibilities in producing and caring for children?
Parental investment theory
All of the following are elements of evolutionary theories of mate selection, EXCEPT
both women and men are likely to select mates who are opposite to themselves in key characteristics such as ethnicity, religion, and age.
Which of the following personality characteristics is identified by your text as a major contributor to dissatisfaction and instability in a marriage relationship?
A high degree of neuroticism
Which of the following is NOT an aspect of love, according to Sternberg?
Habituation
Which of the following is one of the most crucial issues in the interactions that affect the success of a marriage?
The relative proportion of negative and positive everyday encounters
Jennifer and James say they feel close, connected, and committed to each other, but their relationship is no longer exactly what either would call passionate. How would Sternberg most likely describe their relationship?
Companionate
Which of the following statements is true regarding couples who cohabitate before marrying?
They are less likely to be satisfied with their marriage and more likely to get divorced than couples who do not cohabitate before marriage.
How do individuals who view themselves as single by choice differ from individuals who have been single for a long time but still want to marry?
They are less likely to suffer the negative effects of being single on physical and psychological health
In the weeks after giving birth, some women experience feelings of sadness that characterize the mood disturbance known as
postpartum depression.
According to research what happens to marital satisfaction after the birth of a child?
It tends to decrease
Which of the following couples would most likely report the lowest level of marital satisfaction?
Tina and Saul have been married ten years and have two children who are nine and seven years old.
Which of the following couples would most likely report the highest level of marital satisfaction?
Lenora, a lawyer, and Deion, a banker, have been married two years and have no children.
When comparing women's jobs with men's jobs, which of the following statements is most accurate?
women's jobs are concentrated in service occupations that are typically lower in status and lower paid
Which type of person prefers professional activities that are structured, have clear guidelines and consider themselves accurate and precise?
Conventional
The process of adapting to the work place, managing career transitions, and pursuing goals through employment defines which of the following?
Career development
Which of the following best describes neurological support for Arnett's theory?
Neuroimaging studies have shown that the areas of the brain that control impulsiveness, decision making and self-regulation do not mature until the early to mid-twenties.
What is the term that researchers use to describe the basic, underlying, inevitable processes of physical change that affect all human beings?
Primary aging
Which of the following would you utilize as you quickly and accurately work a cross-word puzzle?
Crystallized intelligence
According to developmentalists, which of the following most strongly influences length of life expectancy, quality of health, and incidence of chronic illness among adults?
Social class
When people think of the brain, they think of gray matter. Which of the following is the best definition of white matter?
The collection of myelinated axons that connect one neuron to another
Why do adults become more susceptible to disease as they age?
Fewer antibodies are produced and T cells become less efficient.
Which of the following terms is used to describe an individual's belief in her capacity to cause an intended event to occur, or to perform a task successfully?
Self-efficacy
Locus of control is best defined by which of the following
An individual's beliefs about the causes of events
What is the most commonly occurring bacterial STD in the United States?
Chlamydia
Surveys indicate that in the United States, approximately ________ of women have been injured by a partner, compared to ________ of men.
25%; 8%
According to the World Health Organization, which country has the highest rate of physical abuse among women?
Nicaragua
Which of the following is true of the perpetrators of intrafamily killings, approximately 50% of the time?
they had been using alcohol or drugs
What (is) are the most common mental disorder(s) affecting young adults?
Anxiety and mood disorders
Marta behaves dramatically, always attracting attention with her sexualized manner and style of dress. If you had to label her with a personality disorder, which of the five discussed in this chapter would you suspect she BEST fits?
Histrionic
Larry thinks he is the center of the universe. He hates waiting in lines, insisting that his time is way too important for such trivial matters. While he easily exploits other people for his own personal gain, he also wants everyone to think he is as great as HE thinks he is. Recently, when his wife's aged mother died, he was secretly a little annoyed at the timing, as it interfered with his vacation. Which of the personality disorders mentioned in your text does Larry BEST fit?
Narcissistic
Which mental disorder is characterized by disturbances of thought, such as delusions and hallucinations?
Schizophrenia
Which of the following is the most commonly used legal stimulant which has a propensity to addiction?
Caffeine
What type of aging involves the age-related changes that are due to environmental influences, poor health habits, or disease?
Secondary aging
Marcia's theory of adolescent identity achievement suggests that adolescent identity formation has two key parts. What are they?
Crisis and commitment
Which of the following is NOT true of homosexual teens?
They are likely to "discover" their sexual attractions much later than their heterosexual peers
Lionel thinks he wants to be a fireman, but he is not sure. He is working with his high school career counselor to get information about careers and college majors before he makes a decision. According to Marcia, Lionel is in which stage of identity development?
Moratorium
Which of the following might be an advantage of cultures which have clearly identified rites of passage into adulthood?
Teenagers are able to establish a clear transition from childhood to adulthood.
Which of the following statements about teenaged employment is true?
the more hours worked in high school, the more likely the teen is to be involved with drugs and alcohol.
Mac is noted for baking the best cheese cake in town and is also the person everyone calls when their car won't start. Mac can comfort a crying child and fix a flat tire with equal competence. Mac's gender role identity is most likely
androgynous.
At the preconventional stage of Kohlberg's levels of moral development, a child's moral reasoning is based on which of the following?
The outcome or consequences of an action
According to Kohlberg, the highest stage of moral reasoning is
universal ethical principles.
Which of the following moral principles typically overrides all other concerns of moral judgement in Western societies?
Justice
If you believe that there are distinct differences in the way that boys and girls perceive moral dilemmas, which theorist would you most likely support?
Carol Gilligan
Which of the following statements best summarizes the success of programs designed to deter delinquent behavior in adolescents?
As of 2003 most of these programs have not been successful.
Sixteen-year-olds are more likely to assume which of the following about conflict resolution?
The problems will just go away or work themselves out
At what age does peer group conformity peak?
13 - 15
How do peer group pressures affect adolescents ?
Adolescents are most likely to choose a peer group that shares their values, attitudes, behavior, and identity status
Which statement most accurately describes the progression of peer group structures through adolescence?
Same-sex cliques combine into crowds that evolve into heterosexual cliques and associations of couples.
Which of the following represents Erikson's central crisis of adolescence?
Identity versus role confusion
Which of the following is a component of adolescent egocentrism according to Elkind?
Concrete thinking
Which of the following is an accurate statement about adolescents' development of formal operational thinking?
Formal operational reasoning enables adolescents to understand figurative language, such as metaphors.
Which group of hormones is responsible for the development of the sex organs?
Estrogen in females and testosterone in males
Which gland prompts the release of hormones from the other endocrine glands?
Pituitary
Which of the following best defines menarche?
The onset of menstruation at puberty
The changes in the patterns of physical growth and development that are known as the secular trend are most likely caused by which of the following?
Improvements in nutrition and health care
Dawn has just turned thirteen years old, and she recently experienced menarche. If Dawn becomes sexually active, will she be at risk for pregnancy?
Possibly. Although irregular menstrual cycles are the norm for some time, pregnancy is still possible.
Which of the following groups is more likely to have a negative body image, get into trouble at school and with peers, and engage in delinquent behavior?
Early-maturing girls
In the United States, earlier initiation to adolescent sexual activity is associated with which of the following?
Earlier dating
What proportion of teenagers can actually explain the reality of when a female is most likely to get pregnant?
About half
How many teen pregnancies end in abortion?
About one third
Which of the following statements is true regarding identity and social development in homosexual and heterosexual teens.
The factors that are important in identity development are mostly similar between homosexual and heterosexual teens.
What is the correlation between risk-seeking behavior and the media?
Teens who are most strongly influenced by media portrayals of risky behavior are more likely to engage in sensation-seeking.
Among teenagers, what is the most commonly used illicit drug?
Alcohol
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by
intense fear of weight gain, extreme dieting, and obsessive exercising.
The eating disorder bulimia nervosa is characterized by
episodes of binge eating that are followed by purging activities.
Why are girls less likely to complete suicide?
They tend to use means that are less successful, such as poisoning
Piaget, through his fourth stage, believed that adolescence is the time when children's main task is to learn which of the following?
To think abstractly
Whenever Jean walks by a mirror or any reflective surface he stops to make sure that his hair looks good and that his clothes look acceptable to his peers. Which principle is at work here?
Elkind's theory of the imaginary audience
Leticia saw that her friends didn't have training wheels on their bicycles and decided that she could ride better without them. Which two social-cognitive concepts are at work here?
Social comparisons and self-efficacy
Which of the following best defines self-efficacy?
The belief in one's ability to cause an intended event to happen.
According to your text, which of the following is the key to self-esteem?
The amount of discrepancy between what a child wants and what the child thinks he or she has achieved.
Which of the following children is most likely to recognize that intentions are important when making moral judgments about others' behaviors?
Dudley, who is 8
Which of the following is the child's ability to conform to parental standards of behavior without direct supervision?
Self-regulation
Which of the following is an accurate description of female-male differences in middle childhood friendships?
Girls are more likely to play in pairs or in small, fairly exclusive groups.
Cindy enjoys playing violent video games. Which of the following might you predict about Cindy's behavior in general?
Cindy is likely to be different from other girls in terms of physical aggression and preference for violent television programming
Which of the following seems to be the most important element in a child's acceptance by her peers?
Social behavior
At what age do most developmentalists agree that a child might begin self-care?
Nine or ten
The United States government defines poverty as which of the following income levels for a family with one child?
$13,461
Which of the following would most likely be a resilient child?
The child who lives in a neglectful environment but shows few adverse effects because she has the support of her teachers and extended family.
Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding the effects of television on children?
The best advice is to have no television at all.
Which researcher(s) conducted the "Bobo doll" studies to evaluate the effects of observing aggressive behavior on children?
Albert Bandura
Psychologists have begun to believe that girls may not be less aggressive than boys, but rather that girls may express themselves by using which form of aggression ?
"Relational aggression"