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Improper safelighting, Darkroom light leaks, Improper film storage, Outdated films, Contaminated processing solutions, High developing temps.
Developer too cold, Not enough time in developer, Developer solutions too old, exhausted
Roller Marks on Film
Roller marks on film from dirty roller. Remember to use a cleaning film each day before processing.
The harmful effects of radiation on human tissues are?
cumulative; the effects of repeated exposure to radiation are cumulative and can result in many different disorders such as cancer,cataracts,lukeimiia and genetic abnormalities.
The protective lead apron must be impregnated with how much lead?
The lead apron must be impregnated with 0.25 mm of lead to be effective in shielding out the radiation.
You have a patient who has read articles describing the hazards of medical/dental radiation and is not sure about letting you take Xrays on her. Based on what you now know, how could you explain the procedure in a way that would be reassuring?
If you have a pt with concerns about radiation exposure, you should explain that you are using a lead apron and lead thyroid shield, you are usin the long cone paralelling technique, and you take radiographs only when a need is indicated by clinical exam and not based on an arbituary time schedule.
What is the recommended collimation of the radiation beam at the patients skin surface?
Which of the following devices is an example of personnel monitoring?
film badges, pocket dosimeters and film badges.
What is it called when a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the x ray beam?
collimation: collimation means that a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the xray beam.The lead disc is called the collimator. It restricts the size of the xay beam at the patients face.
Which molecular changes occur in a livin organism being struck by photons?
Molecules break into smaller pieces. New bonds form within molecules. New bonds form between new molecules.
Whar is the corect vertical angulation for taking a bitewing radiograph?
+10 degrees vertical angulation
In dental radiology, what infection control procedures are included?
sterilization and disinfection
The bicuspid/premolar bitewing radiograph should be placed to include which of the following anatomical structures?
the distal 1/2 of the mandibular cuspid
the size one film would most likely be used to radiograph which of the following areas on an adult pt?
Which of the following sequences represents the correct developing sequences represent the correct developing and processing procedure for manual processing?
What is the name of the chemichal in the fixer that clears the unexposed silver halide crystals?
Which chemichal agent
Which chemichal agent is present in the developer and is responsible for building the black and grey tones on a film?
metol and hydroquinone
If there are no teeth to serve as guides, which of the following landmarks indicate a maxillary molar area radiograph?
maxillary tuberosity and near the outer corner of th eye; on edentulous patients the max tuberosity and the corner of te eye would serve as landmarks of the max molar radiograph
What causes light films?
underexposure,underdevelopment, and low MA and KV will all cause light films
While taking a panoraic extraoral Xray, where should the assistant instruct the patient to place his or her tongue?
on the roof of the mouth (palate
What technique is best when exposing intraoral films prior to placing an implant?
Prior to placing a dental implant, the operator needs to examine the bone quality and bone quantity, and locate anatomical structures. The panoramic radiograph is best for this purpose. A pt may be sent to the hospital for medical clearance and an MRI prior to implant placement.
Lead is the most resistant material to the penetraion of ionizing radiation. Thia is why the pt is draped with a lead lined apron and thyroid collar.
Ammonium thiosulfate is the chemichal found in the fixer solution that clears the unexposed silver halide crystals
For manual processing in the darkroom with the developing tanks, the proper sequence for immersion of the films is develop, rinse ,fix and then wash
The size of the silver halide crystals determines the speed of the film. The fastest film speed available is F speed
In a 20 film mount full mouth set of xrays, the central incisors, lateral incisors, and cuspids are radiographed using a size 1 film
Proper placement for the bicuspid/ premolar bite wing radiograph must include the distal half of the mandibular cuspid
Exposed film packets should never be immersed in a disinfectant soution. Immersing them in any liquid will destroy the imae. However it is acceptable to wipe the exposed films with a dry paper towel to remove any saliva or blood.
In dental radiology, the snap or ray film holder and xcp film holders are sterilized, and the treatment room is disninfected. No antiseptic agents are used.
Collimation means that a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the xray beam. The lead disc is called the collimator. It restricts the size of the xray beam at the pateints face.
Film badges, pocket dosimeters, and filn rings are all an examples of personnel monitoring devices that measure the dose of radiation recieved by the members of a dental team.
Film placement (premolars)
you want to see the distal half of the canine back
if missing its too far for posterior
if full canine is too far for anterior
Film placement (molars)
you want to see the distal half of 2nd premolar
if missing its too far for posterior
if only see portion of the 3rd molar its too far for anterior
Extraoral, both arches are fully seen, Evaluation of 3rd molars, impacted teeth, TMJ, jaw fractures, Edentulous arches and dental implants.
Pt position for Extraoral radiographs
Standing erect, midsagittal plane should be perpendicular to the floor. The frankfort plane should be parallel to the floor. Inferior border of or at the middle of the ear
Shallow & the pts are to put the tip of their tongue to the roof of the mouth.
one structure overlying another (zygomatic arch over apices at maxillary molars)
Incorrect horizontal angulation results in overlapped contact areas.
What is the error? What caused it?
Elongation. Vertical angulation is too flat. Insufficient angulation.
What is the error? What caused it?
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