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123 terms

Combo with Dental Radiology and 1 other

STUDY
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Finger Print on Film
Handling film with wet hands
Brown Stain on Film
Fixer solution too old, chemicals exhausted or inadequate washing with water
Developer Cut-Off
Not enough developer in tank. Solution only covers half of the film
Dark area on film
Film exposed to light before placed in processing (developer and fixer)
Black developer splashes
Developer solution spilled on film before it was washed
Two films overlapped
Films stuck together during processing
Fixer Cut-Off
Not enough fixer in tank. Solution only covers half of the film
Fogged Film
Improper safelighting, Darkroom light leaks, Improper film storage, Outdated films, Contaminated processing solutions, High developing temps.
Reticulation
Big difference in temperature of Developer and Fixer solutions. Rarely occurs.
Overdeveloped Film
Developer too hot, Too much time in the developer, Exposure to light
Underdeveloped Film
Developer too cold, Not enough time in developer, Developer solutions too old, exhausted
Roller Marks on Film
Roller marks on film from dirty roller. Remember to use a cleaning film each day before processing.
Static Electricity
Removing Film to quickly from packet
White Fixer Spots on Film
Film splashed with fixer before processing (developing).
The harmful effects of radiation on human tissues are?
cumulative; the effects of repeated exposure to radiation are cumulative and can result in many different disorders such as cancer,cataracts,lukeimiia and genetic abnormalities.
The protective lead apron must be impregnated with how much lead?
The lead apron must be impregnated with 0.25 mm of lead to be effective in shielding out the radiation.
You have a patient who has read articles describing the hazards of medical/dental radiation and is not sure about letting you take Xrays on her. Based on what you now know, how could you explain the procedure in a way that would be reassuring?
If you have a pt with concerns about radiation exposure, you should explain that you are using a lead apron and lead thyroid shield, you are usin the long cone paralelling technique, and you take radiographs only when a need is indicated by clinical exam and not based on an arbituary time schedule.
What do filters do in the X ray beam?
reduce pt radiation dose and remove the long waves
What is the recommended collimation of the radiation beam at the patients skin surface?
2.75 inches
Which of the following devices is an example of personnel monitoring?
film badges, pocket dosimeters and film badges.
What is it called when a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the x ray beam?
collimation: collimation means that a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the xray beam.The lead disc is called the collimator. It restricts the size of the xay beam at the patients face.
Which molecular changes occur in a livin organism being struck by photons?
Molecules break into smaller pieces. New bonds form within molecules. New bonds form between new molecules.
Whar is the corect vertical angulation for taking a bitewing radiograph?
+10 degrees vertical angulation
In dental radiology, what infection control procedures are included?
sterilization and disinfection
The bicuspid/premolar bitewing radiograph should be placed to include which of the following anatomical structures?
the distal 1/2 of the mandibular cuspid
the size one film would most likely be used to radiograph which of the following areas on an adult pt?
incisors, cuspids
What determines the speed of film?
the size of the silver halide crystals
Which of the following sequences represents the correct developing sequences represent the correct developing and processing procedure for manual processing?
develop,rinse,fix,wash
What is the name of the chemichal in the fixer that clears the unexposed silver halide crystals?
ammonium thiosulfate
Define density
degree of darkness or blackness on a film
Which chemichal agent
Which chemichal agent is present in the developer and is responsible for building the black and grey tones on a film?
metol and hydroquinone
Which term describes the loss of electrons from a substance?
ionization
Which of the following materials is most resistant to the penetration of ionizing radiation?
lead
If there are no teeth to serve as guides, which of the following landmarks indicate a maxillary molar area radiograph?
maxillary tuberosity and near the outer corner of th eye; on edentulous patients the max tuberosity and the corner of te eye would serve as landmarks of the max molar radiograph
What causes light films?
underexposure,underdevelopment, and low MA and KV will all cause light films
Which restorative materials appear radiopaque on a radiograph?
amalgams, gold crowns;
What will too much vertical angulation cause?
foreshortening
What is the primary use for occlusal dental radiographs?
locate foreign bodies
While taking a panoraic extraoral Xray, where should the assistant instruct the patient to place his or her tongue?
on the roof of the mouth (palate
Which of the following is not classified as a developmental dental abnormality
periapical abscess
A charged coupling device (CCD) is primarily made of what substance?
silicon
What technique is best when exposing intraoral films prior to placing an implant?
panoramic technique
Prior to placing a dental implant, the operator needs to examine the bone quality and bone quantity, and locate anatomical structures. The panoramic radiograph is best for this purpose. A pt may be sent to the hospital for medical clearance and an MRI prior to implant placement.
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A charged coupling device (CCD) is made of silicone
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The resultant image of te operator using too much vertical angulation is foreshortening.
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underexosed, underdeveloped, and a low MA or KV will cause a light film
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Lead is the most resistant material to the penetraion of ionizing radiation. Thia is why the pt is draped with a lead lined apron and thyroid collar.
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Density is the degree of darkness or blackness on the film
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Ammonium thiosulfate is the chemichal found in the fixer solution that clears the unexposed silver halide crystals
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For manual processing in the darkroom with the developing tanks, the proper sequence for immersion of the films is develop, rinse ,fix and then wash
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The size of the silver halide crystals determines the speed of the film. The fastest film speed available is F speed
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In a 20 film mount full mouth set of xrays, the central incisors, lateral incisors, and cuspids are radiographed using a size 1 film
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Proper placement for the bicuspid/ premolar bite wing radiograph must include the distal half of the mandibular cuspid
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Exposed film packets should never be immersed in a disinfectant soution. Immersing them in any liquid will destroy the imae. However it is acceptable to wipe the exposed films with a dry paper towel to remove any saliva or blood.
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In dental radiology, the snap or ray film holder and xcp film holders are sterilized, and the treatment room is disninfected. No antiseptic agents are used.
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A full mouth Xray series always has periapical and bitweing films.
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Collimation means that a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the xray beam. The lead disc is called the collimator. It restricts the size of the xray beam at the pateints face.
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Film badges, pocket dosimeters, and filn rings are all an examples of personnel monitoring devices that measure the dose of radiation recieved by the members of a dental team.
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Nasal cavity
Radiolucent
Incisive Foramen
Radiolucent
Median palatine suture
Radiolucent
Maxillary Sinus
Radiolucent
Lateral/canine fossa
Radiolucent
Lingual foramen
Radiolucent
Mental fossa
Radiolucent
Mental foramen (between roots of 1st & 2nd premolar)
Radiolucent
Submandibular fossa
Radiolucent
Mandibular canal
Radiolucent
Inverted Y
Radiopaque
Maxillary tuberosity
Radipoaque
Hamulus
Radiopaque
Zygomatic arch (J or U shaped)
Radiopaque
Cornoid process (triangle in the lower posterior corner)
Radiopaque
Genial tubercles
Radiopaque
Mental ridge
Radiopaque
External oblique ridge
Radiopaque
Mylohoid ridge (internal oblique ridge)
Radiopaque
Film placement (premolars)
you want to see the distal half of the canine back
if missing its too far for posterior
if full canine is too far for anterior
Film placement (molars)
you want to see the distal half of 2nd premolar
if missing its too far for posterior
if only see portion of the 3rd molar its too far for anterior
Panaoramic Radiographs
Extraoral, both arches are fully seen, Evaluation of 3rd molars, impacted teeth, TMJ, jaw fractures, Edentulous arches and dental implants.
Pt position for Extraoral radiographs
Standing erect, midsagittal plane should be perpendicular to the floor. The frankfort plane should be parallel to the floor. Inferior border of or at the middle of the ear
Shallow & the pts are to put the tip of their tongue to the roof of the mouth.
Exposure errors
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not enough vertical angulation
elongation
too much vertiacl angulation
foreshortening
no open contact incorrect horizontal angulation
overlapped image
PID not centered over film
cone cut
not enough exposure time (underexposed) PID too far away or MA too low
light image
MA too high (overexposed) too muc exposure time, PID too close
dark image
films curls over the biteblock
elongation of the apices
pruposely bending of film for pt comfort (black line in corner)
film crease
film reversed (also a light film) placed backwards
herringbone effect
film never exposed
blank/clear film
Patient movement
blurred image
one structure overlying another (zygomatic arch over apices at maxillary molars)
superimposed image
exposed film twice
double exposure
exposed to light
black film
Imaginary horseshoe, best quality films
focal trough
Focal trough errors:
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chin to far forward
anterior teeth blurred and they appear narrow
chin too far back
anterior teeth blurred and they appear wide
chin too high
maxillary incisors blurred
chin too low
mandibular incisors blurred
Pt slouched
spinal column is superimposed over anterior teeth
Tongue not on roof of mouth
air pocket created
Ghost image
failure to have pt remove their jewelry
Overexposed film
What is the error?
Underexposed film
What is the error?
Clear
How does an unexposed film look like?
Black
How does a film exposed to light look?
Improper film placement. No apices appear on film.
What is the error?
Improper film placement. Dropped film corner.
What is the error? What caused it?
Incorrect horizontal angulation results in overlapped contact areas.
What is the error? What caused it?
Foreshortened. Vertical angulation is too steep. Too excessive.
What is the error? What caused it?
Elongation. Vertical angulation is too flat. Insufficient angulation.
What is the error? What caused it?
Cone-cut
What is the error?
Incorrect film placement for the premolar bite-wing
What is the error?
Incorrect film placement for the molar bite-wing
What is the error? What caused it?
A bent film appears distorted
What is the error? What caused it?
Film crease appears as thin radiolucent line
What is the error? What caused it?
Phalangioma. Bones of patient's finger appears on the film.
What is the error? What caused it?
Double exposure
What is the error? What caused it?
Movement results in blurred image.
What is the error? What caused it?
Reversed film appears light with a herringbone (tire-track) pattern
What is the error? What caused it?