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Finger Print on Film

Handling film with wet hands

Brown Stain on Film

Fixer solution too old, chemicals exhausted or inadequate washing with water

Developer Cut-Off

Not enough developer in tank. Solution only covers half of the film

Dark area on film

Film exposed to light before placed in processing (developer and fixer)

Black developer splashes

Developer solution spilled on film before it was washed

Two films overlapped

Films stuck together during processing

Fixer Cut-Off

Not enough fixer in tank. Solution only covers half of the film

Fogged Film

Improper safelighting, Darkroom light leaks, Improper film storage, Outdated films, Contaminated processing solutions, High developing temps.


Big difference in temperature of Developer and Fixer solutions. Rarely occurs.

Overdeveloped Film

Developer too hot, Too much time in the developer, Exposure to light

Underdeveloped Film

Developer too cold, Not enough time in developer, Developer solutions too old, exhausted

Roller Marks on Film

Roller marks on film from dirty roller. Remember to use a cleaning film each day before processing.

Static Electricity

Removing Film to quickly from packet

White Fixer Spots on Film

Film splashed with fixer before processing (developing).

The harmful effects of radiation on human tissues are?

cumulative; the effects of repeated exposure to radiation are cumulative and can result in many different disorders such as cancer,cataracts,lukeimiia and genetic abnormalities.

The protective lead apron must be impregnated with how much lead?

The lead apron must be impregnated with 0.25 mm of lead to be effective in shielding out the radiation.

You have a patient who has read articles describing the hazards of medical/dental radiation and is not sure about letting you take Xrays on her. Based on what you now know, how could you explain the procedure in a way that would be reassuring?

If you have a pt with concerns about radiation exposure, you should explain that you are using a lead apron and lead thyroid shield, you are usin the long cone paralelling technique, and you take radiographs only when a need is indicated by clinical exam and not based on an arbituary time schedule.

What do filters do in the X ray beam?

reduce pt radiation dose and remove the long waves

What is the recommended collimation of the radiation beam at the patients skin surface?

2.75 inches

Which of the following devices is an example of personnel monitoring?

film badges, pocket dosimeters and film badges.

What is it called when a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the x ray beam?

collimation: collimation means that a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the xray beam.The lead disc is called the collimator. It restricts the size of the xay beam at the patients face.

Which molecular changes occur in a livin organism being struck by photons?

Molecules break into smaller pieces. New bonds form within molecules. New bonds form between new molecules.

Whar is the corect vertical angulation for taking a bitewing radiograph?

+10 degrees vertical angulation

In dental radiology, what infection control procedures are included?

sterilization and disinfection

The bicuspid/premolar bitewing radiograph should be placed to include which of the following anatomical structures?

the distal 1/2 of the mandibular cuspid

the size one film would most likely be used to radiograph which of the following areas on an adult pt?

incisors, cuspids

What determines the speed of film?

the size of the silver halide crystals

Which of the following sequences represents the correct developing sequences represent the correct developing and processing procedure for manual processing?


What is the name of the chemichal in the fixer that clears the unexposed silver halide crystals?

ammonium thiosulfate

Define density

degree of darkness or blackness on a film

Which chemichal agent
Which chemichal agent is present in the developer and is responsible for building the black and grey tones on a film?

metol and hydroquinone

Which term describes the loss of electrons from a substance?


Which of the following materials is most resistant to the penetration of ionizing radiation?


If there are no teeth to serve as guides, which of the following landmarks indicate a maxillary molar area radiograph?

maxillary tuberosity and near the outer corner of th eye; on edentulous patients the max tuberosity and the corner of te eye would serve as landmarks of the max molar radiograph

What causes light films?

underexposure,underdevelopment, and low MA and KV will all cause light films

Which restorative materials appear radiopaque on a radiograph?

amalgams, gold crowns;

What will too much vertical angulation cause?


What is the primary use for occlusal dental radiographs?

locate foreign bodies

While taking a panoraic extraoral Xray, where should the assistant instruct the patient to place his or her tongue?

on the roof of the mouth (palate

Which of the following is not classified as a developmental dental abnormality

periapical abscess

A charged coupling device (CCD) is primarily made of what substance?


What technique is best when exposing intraoral films prior to placing an implant?

panoramic technique

Prior to placing a dental implant, the operator needs to examine the bone quality and bone quantity, and locate anatomical structures. The panoramic radiograph is best for this purpose. A pt may be sent to the hospital for medical clearance and an MRI prior to implant placement.


A charged coupling device (CCD) is made of silicone


The resultant image of te operator using too much vertical angulation is foreshortening.


underexosed, underdeveloped, and a low MA or KV will cause a light film


Lead is the most resistant material to the penetraion of ionizing radiation. Thia is why the pt is draped with a lead lined apron and thyroid collar.


Density is the degree of darkness or blackness on the film


Ammonium thiosulfate is the chemichal found in the fixer solution that clears the unexposed silver halide crystals


For manual processing in the darkroom with the developing tanks, the proper sequence for immersion of the films is develop, rinse ,fix and then wash


The size of the silver halide crystals determines the speed of the film. The fastest film speed available is F speed


In a 20 film mount full mouth set of xrays, the central incisors, lateral incisors, and cuspids are radiographed using a size 1 film


Proper placement for the bicuspid/ premolar bite wing radiograph must include the distal half of the mandibular cuspid


Exposed film packets should never be immersed in a disinfectant soution. Immersing them in any liquid will destroy the imae. However it is acceptable to wipe the exposed films with a dry paper towel to remove any saliva or blood.


In dental radiology, the snap or ray film holder and xcp film holders are sterilized, and the treatment room is disninfected. No antiseptic agents are used.


A full mouth Xray series always has periapical and bitweing films.


Collimation means that a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the xray beam. The lead disc is called the collimator. It restricts the size of the xray beam at the pateints face.


Film badges, pocket dosimeters, and filn rings are all an examples of personnel monitoring devices that measure the dose of radiation recieved by the members of a dental team.


Nasal cavity


Incisive Foramen


Median palatine suture


Maxillary Sinus


Lateral/canine fossa


Lingual foramen


Mental fossa


Mental foramen (between roots of 1st & 2nd premolar)


Submandibular fossa


Mandibular canal


Inverted Y


Maxillary tuberosity




Zygomatic arch (J or U shaped)


Cornoid process (triangle in the lower posterior corner)


Genial tubercles


Mental ridge


External oblique ridge


Mylohoid ridge (internal oblique ridge)


Film placement (premolars)

you want to see the distal half of the canine back
if missing its too far for posterior
if full canine is too far for anterior

Film placement (molars)

you want to see the distal half of 2nd premolar
if missing its too far for posterior
if only see portion of the 3rd molar its too far for anterior

Panaoramic Radiographs

Extraoral, both arches are fully seen, Evaluation of 3rd molars, impacted teeth, TMJ, jaw fractures, Edentulous arches and dental implants.

Pt position for Extraoral radiographs

Standing erect, midsagittal plane should be perpendicular to the floor. The frankfort plane should be parallel to the floor. Inferior border of or at the middle of the ear
Shallow & the pts are to put the tip of their tongue to the roof of the mouth.

Exposure errors


not enough vertical angulation


too much vertiacl angulation


no open contact incorrect horizontal angulation

overlapped image

PID not centered over film

cone cut

not enough exposure time (underexposed) PID too far away or MA too low

light image

MA too high (overexposed) too muc exposure time, PID too close

dark image

films curls over the biteblock

elongation of the apices

pruposely bending of film for pt comfort (black line in corner)

film crease

film reversed (also a light film) placed backwards

herringbone effect

film never exposed

blank/clear film

Patient movement

blurred image

one structure overlying another (zygomatic arch over apices at maxillary molars)

superimposed image

exposed film twice

double exposure

exposed to light

black film

Imaginary horseshoe, best quality films

focal trough

Focal trough errors:


chin to far forward

anterior teeth blurred and they appear narrow

chin too far back

anterior teeth blurred and they appear wide

chin too high

maxillary incisors blurred

chin too low

mandibular incisors blurred

Pt slouched

spinal column is superimposed over anterior teeth

Tongue not on roof of mouth

air pocket created

Ghost image

failure to have pt remove their jewelry

Overexposed film

What is the error?

Underexposed film

What is the error?


How does an unexposed film look like?


How does a film exposed to light look?

Improper film placement. No apices appear on film.

What is the error?

Improper film placement. Dropped film corner.

What is the error? What caused it?

Incorrect horizontal angulation results in overlapped contact areas.

What is the error? What caused it?

Foreshortened. Vertical angulation is too steep. Too excessive.

What is the error? What caused it?

Elongation. Vertical angulation is too flat. Insufficient angulation.

What is the error? What caused it?


What is the error?

Incorrect film placement for the premolar bite-wing

What is the error?

Incorrect film placement for the molar bite-wing

What is the error? What caused it?

A bent film appears distorted

What is the error? What caused it?

Film crease appears as thin radiolucent line

What is the error? What caused it?

Phalangioma. Bones of patient's finger appears on the film.

What is the error? What caused it?

Double exposure

What is the error? What caused it?

Movement results in blurred image.

What is the error? What caused it?

Reversed film appears light with a herringbone (tire-track) pattern

What is the error? What caused it?

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