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54 terms

sociology final exam

STUDY
PLAY
social institution involved with the distribution of goods
develops in certain ways to distribute goods
theoretical perspective associated with marx and his concept of "struggle"
conflict theorists
characteristics of a cult
new or different religion whose teachings and practices put it at odds with other dominant religions
reactive social movements
a social movement that resists some social change
social movement
a large, organized body of people who are attempting to create social change
macro perspective
broad features of sociology used by conflict theorists and funtionalists
theorist who said religion is the "opium of the people"
Marx, conflict perspective
marx's perspective on causes of religion
"religion teaches that the existing social arrangements of a society represents what G-d desires"
karl marx's view on religion
athiest. believed the existence of G-d is impossible.
secularization
the replacement of a religions spiritual or "other wordly" concerns with concerns about "this world"
benefits of social placement and tracking
it makes sure students are placed in the right places according to their abilities
durkheim's definition and view of religion
"elementary forms of the religious life" he identified elements that are common in all religions and seperated sacred from profane
latent function
positive consequences they did not intend
manifest function
positive things that people intend their actions to accomplish
criticisms against capitalism
leads to social inequality. produces a tiny top layer of wealthy, powerful people who exploit an immense bottom layer of poorly paid workers
socialism
1. public ownership of means of production. 2. central planning. 3. distribution of goods with out a profit motive
welfare
current form of US capitalism or state capitalism. Private citizens own the means of production and pursue profit but do so with in a vaste system of laws designed to protect the welfare of the population
capitalism
1. private ownership of the means of production 2. market competition. 3. pursuit of profit
pluralist perspective of power
the decisions that have the greatest impact on the lives of americans and people accross the globe are made by power elite
rational-legal authority
based on written rules, not custom. matters that have been agreed to by reasonable people and written into law
bureaucratic authority
based on anorganizational structure that includes a clearly defined division of labor, hierarchy of authority, formal rules and impersonality
weber's concept of charismatic authority
people drawn to charismatic leaders because they believe individual was touched by g-d
routinization of charisma
transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either traditional or rational-legal authority
authority
the power or right to give orders or make decisions
power
ability to carry out your will despite resistance
power elite
those who make the big decisions in US society
alienation and theorists associated with term
marx. perceived in terms of roles, rules, and functions rather than as individual. many workers feel like objects rather than people
norms
rules of behavior
statuses
position someone occupies
role
behavior obligation and priveledges attached to statuses
social institution
the ways that each society develops to meet its basic needs
ascribed status
involuntary, born into or inherited
achieved status
voluntary, accomplished
status set
all statuses or positions you occupy
karl marx/conflict theory
key to human history is class conflict. some small groups control means of production and exploit those who aren't in control. bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
theoretical perspective for society that strives for equalibrium
functionalist perspective
collective behavior
is voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant group norms and values.
scientific inquiry
the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather
civil religion
religion that is such an established feature of society that the countries institutions and history are part of it
metaformative
change social order of itself
alterative
seek to alter someones behavior
redemptive
goal is total change in individual
reformative
change aspect of society
transformative
transfrom social order or itself
transnational
change specific condition that cuts across society
webers concept of rationalization
viewed bureaucracies as powerful form of social organization that he predicted would dominate social life
ideal-type
comparing tradition and industrial societie by characteristics. the characteristics are ideal societies don't possess every characteristic on the list
communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
theoretical perspective associated with pluralism
functionalist perspective to protect themselves from oppressors
theoretical perspective over scarce resources
conflict theory
"hidden curriculum"
refers to the attitudes and the unwritten rules and behavior that schools teach in addition to formal curriculum. helps to perpetuate social inequlities
government decision making under pluralism
diffusion of power among many special interest groups. prevents any one group from gaining comtrol of the government and using it to oppress the pople. hence the three branches of government
protestant ethic
belief stressing hard work and self-discipline
spirit of capitalism
investing capital in order to make more money