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social institution involved with the distribution of goods
develops in certain ways to distribute goods
characteristics of a cult
new or different religion whose teachings and practices put it at odds with other dominant religions
marx's perspective on causes of religion
"religion teaches that the existing social arrangements of a society represents what G-d desires"
the replacement of a religions spiritual or "other wordly" concerns with concerns about "this world"
benefits of social placement and tracking
it makes sure students are placed in the right places according to their abilities
durkheim's definition and view of religion
"elementary forms of the religious life" he identified elements that are common in all religions and seperated sacred from profane
criticisms against capitalism
leads to social inequality. produces a tiny top layer of wealthy, powerful people who exploit an immense bottom layer of poorly paid workers
1. public ownership of means of production. 2. central planning. 3. distribution of goods with out a profit motive
current form of US capitalism or state capitalism. Private citizens own the means of production and pursue profit but do so with in a vaste system of laws designed to protect the welfare of the population
1. private ownership of the means of production 2. market competition. 3. pursuit of profit
pluralist perspective of power
the decisions that have the greatest impact on the lives of americans and people accross the globe are made by power elite
based on written rules, not custom. matters that have been agreed to by reasonable people and written into law
based on anorganizational structure that includes a clearly defined division of labor, hierarchy of authority, formal rules and impersonality
weber's concept of charismatic authority
people drawn to charismatic leaders because they believe individual was touched by g-d
routinization of charisma
transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either traditional or rational-legal authority
alienation and theorists associated with term
marx. perceived in terms of roles, rules, and functions rather than as individual. many workers feel like objects rather than people
karl marx/conflict theory
key to human history is class conflict. some small groups control means of production and exploit those who aren't in control. bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
is voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant group norms and values.
the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather
religion that is such an established feature of society that the countries institutions and history are part of it
webers concept of rationalization
viewed bureaucracies as powerful form of social organization that he predicted would dominate social life
comparing tradition and industrial societie by characteristics. the characteristics are ideal societies don't possess every characteristic on the list
theoretical perspective associated with pluralism
functionalist perspective to protect themselves from oppressors
refers to the attitudes and the unwritten rules and behavior that schools teach in addition to formal curriculum. helps to perpetuate social inequlities
government decision making under pluralism
diffusion of power among many special interest groups. prevents any one group from gaining comtrol of the government and using it to oppress the pople. hence the three branches of government
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