Conflict Resolution & Negotiations Exam II

most common objections to closing deals
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directorsdirect & task- orientated communicatorsexpressersdirect and relationship-oriented communicatorsthinkerstask-orientated and indirect communicatorsharmonizersavoid conflict and try to please othersmessages that are exchanged-offers & counteroffers -preferences -concessions -alternatives -explanations -patterns of communication100- 175How many words a minute do people approx speak?600-800How many words a minute do people approx listen intelligently?active listening stepsparaphrase inquire acknowledgenon verbal attendingprepare self with positive, engaged attitude open body posture eye contact quiet attentiveness80-95What is the % of messages that are communicated nonverbally?menWho is better at detecting deception?womenWho is better at decoding nonverbal messages?nonverbal communications-first impressions -building rapport -structuring conversations -detecting deceptionlowPeople with what kind of self esteem use more eye contact when receiving negative messages?highPeople with what kind of self esteems use more eye contact when receiving positive messages?constrict & dilateWhat happens to people's pupils when they lie?voluntary kinesic behaviorsgestures, dramaturgy, touching, protocol responses, expressed attitude, reinforcing statements, changes in issue framing, reflex actions.involuntary kinesic behaviorsPupillary responses Changes in respiration rate Changes in pulse rate Changes in complexion Changes in perspiration rate Facial spasms Dry mouth Stuttering Yawningsemi-voluntary kinesic behaviorsFlinching Fidgeting or change in body posture Eye behavior Holding breath, catching breath, sighs Facial expressions Flustering, agitation, stammering Nervous habits Subconscious attitudeparalanguageVoice quality Intonations and inflections Volume Speech rate Pitch Laughter Grunts Squeals Exclamationsphysical characteristicsApparel condition and appearance Hair Organizational display Facial wrinkles Overall postureproxemicsconversational distance (respected space vs changing space), selected seatingenvironmentalBuilding and room design Landscaping Furniture Artwork, other displays Lighting Sound control and music Cleanlinesseye contact, appearance, facial expressionsWhat are the 3 nonverbal cues an interviewer remembers most about a job applicant?decision making errorscognitive, perceptual, emotionalcognitive mistakes-being overly affected -escalating commitment to previous no longer reasonable actions -always assuming win-lose paradigm -strong reliance on readily available info -failing to consider counterparts perspective -overconfidentaspect ratioEven though the dollar amount may remain the same, the perceived savings on a purchase will diminish as a motivator with an increase in price.seller status-Perceived product quality is enhanced or diminished according to retail outlet status. -There is a tendency to assign a greater value to the quality of the transaction over the actual intrinsic worth of a product or servicerelevant polarityAcceptance of an offer often depends on how the negotiator has presented the issue, and on which polar attribute emphasized.endowment effectDisparate value assessment on the same item is often caused by the negotiator's relationship to the itemsunk coststhe most common cause of transactional entrapmentframinghow we say something- not what we saythree dimensions of framingrelationship vs task emotional vs intellectual compromise vs winningfundamental attribution errorthe tendency to attribute our own behaviors and others behaviors to different causesperception errorsignoring others cognitions illusion of transparency reactive devaluation extremismreactive devaluationTendency for negotiators to discount or dismiss proposals or concessions merely because of who offered them.illusion of transparencyEntails our tendency to overestimate the extent to which hothers can discern our thoughts and objectivesextremismcauses us to believe that his or her interests are more opposed to our own than they actually areemotional biasesmood anger competitive arousal miswantingmoodEngenders emotional biases because it influences the quality and depth of our information processingangerMay engender retaliatory actions toward the other party if he is perceived to be responsible for some harm to the negotiatorcompetitive arousalAn adrenaline-fueled emotional state.miswantingWe exaggerate our emotional reactions to future events. negotiators may have trouble deciding what they are negotiating for, and how hard to push for itreward powerthe ability to give the other negotiator items that he or she values, or to credibly promise these items- money, info, tangible resources, approval or other items that he or she wants/needscoercive powerthe ability to punish, to credibly threaten to punish, or to withhold rewards or other positive outcomes that the other negotiator or needs- declining offers, withholding coveted offers, disapprovallegitimate powerauthority derived from a negotiators age, social status, caste, or rights derived from his or person position within the org.