- Ecosystem services: support energy flow & chemical cycling, reduce soil erosion, absorb & release water, purify water & air, influence local & regional climate, store atmospheric carbon provide numerous wildlife habitats.
- Economic services: fuel-wood, lumber, pulp to make paper, mining, livestock grazing, recreation, and jobs!
Underlying: not valuing ecological services, crop & timber exports, gvt policies, poverty, population growth.
Direct Causes: roads, fires, settler farming, cash crops, cattle ranching, logging, and tree plantations.
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
1st EditionJanet L. Hopson, Postlethwait