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Bacteria: Deinococci & Nonproteobacteria Gram Negatives

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Akinetes
Specialized, nonmotile, dormant, thick-walled resting cells formed by some cyanobacteria
Anoxygenic photosynthesis
Photosynthesis that does not oxidize water to produce oxygen; a form of photosynthesis characteristic of purple and green photosynthetic bacteria and heliobacteria
Axial fibrils or periplasmic flagella
The flagella that lie under the outer sheath and extend from both ends of the spirochete cell to overlap in the middle and form the axial filament
Carboxysomes
Polyhedral inclusions that contain the carbon dioxide-fixation enzyme rubisco; found in cyanobacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and thiobacilli
Chlamydiae
Obligate intracellular bacteria that have a unique mode of reproduction
Chlorosomes
Elongated, intramembranous vesicles found in green sulfur and nonsulfur bacteria; contain light-harvesting pigments; sometimes called chlorobium vesicles
Cyanobacteria
A large group of gram-negative bacteria that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis using a system like that present in photosynthetic eukaryotes
Elementary body (EB)
A small, dormant body that serves as the agent of transmission between host cells in the chlamydial life cycle
Gliding motility
A type of motility in which a microbial cell moves along a solid surface
Green nonsulfur bacteria
Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophylls a and c; usually photoheterotrophic and display gliding motility; include members of the phylum Chloroflexi
Green sulfur bacteria
Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that conatin bacteriochlorophylls a plus c, d, or e; photolithoautotrophic; use hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, or sulfur as electron donor; include members of the phylum Chlorobi
Heterocysts
Specialized cells of cyanobacteria that are the sites of nitrogen fixation
Oxygenic photosynthesis
Photosynthesis that oxidizes water to form oxygen; the form of photosynthesis characteristic of plants, protists, and cyanobacteria
Phototaxis
The ability of certain phototrophic microbes to move, either by gliding or swimming motility, in response to a light source
Phycobilisomes
Particles on the membranes of cyanobacteria that contain photosynthetic pigments and electron transport chains
Reticulate body (RB)
The cellular form in the chlamydial life cycle whose role is growth and reproduction within the host cell
Axial filament
The whole complex of periplasmic flagella
Hyperthermophile
What type of "-phile" are members of the phylum Aquificae?
Chemolithoautotrophic
Are members of the phylum Aquificae autotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotrophic, lithotrophic, phototrophic, organotrophic, or a combination?
Hyperthermophile
What type of "-phile" are members of the phylum Thermotogae?
Active geothermal areas
Where do you find members of the phylum Thermotogae?
Chemoheterotrophs
Are members of the phylum Thermotogae autotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotrophic, lithotrophic, phototrophic, organotrophic, or a combination?
Spherical or rod-shaped, often associated in pairs or tetrads
What shape are members of the genus Deinococcus?
Stains gram positive
What is unique about the gram-negative genus Deinococcus?
Palmitoleic acid
What acid do members of the genus Deinococcus have in their plasma membrane instead of teichoic acid?
Desiccation and radiation
What are members of the genus Deinococcus resistant to?
Two circular chromosomes, a mega plasmid, and a small plasmid
What does the genome of members of the genus Deinococcus consist of?
Mn(II)
In the genus Deinococcus, accumulation of what ion protects against radiation-induced toxic oxygen species?
Cyanobacteria
What type of bacteria carries out oxygenic photosynthesis?
Anoxygenic photosynthesis
What type of photosynthesis do green and purple bacteria use?
Purple sulfur bacteria
Which bacteria uses reduced sulfur compounds as electron sources and accumulates sulfur granules within their cells?
Green sulfur bacteria
Which bacteria uses reduced sulfur compounds as electron sources and accumulates sulfur granules outside their cells?
Purple nonsulfur bacteria
Which bacteria uses organic molecules rather than sulfur or water as electron sources for photosynthesis?
Bacteriochlorophyll
What type of chlorophyll does purple and green bacteria have?
Anaerobes
Are purple and green bacteria aerobes, facultative anaerobes, or anaerobes?
Deeper, anaerobic zones of aquatic habitats
Where do purple and green bacteria grow best?
Chlorophyll a
Which absorbs longer wavelengths of light? Chlorophyll a or bacteriochlorophyll?
Chlorophyll a
What type of chlorophyll does cyanobacteria have?
Surface of bodies of water
Where do you usually find cyanobacteria?
Green sulfur bacteria
What type of bacteria does the phylum Chlorobi contain?
Green nonsulfur bacteria
What type of bacteria does the phylum Chloroflexi contain?
Purple sulfur bacteria and purple nonsulfur bacteria
What type of bacteria does the phylum Proteobacteria contain?
Heliobacteria
What type of bacteria does the phylum Firmicutes contain?
Chlorosomes
Photosynthetic pigments in green sulfur bacteria are located in what ellipsoidal vesicles?
Gas vesicles
What do green sulfur bacteria use to adjust their depth in water?
Chloroflexi
Which phylum contains filamentous, gliding bacteria?
Thermophilic
What temperature range does the Chloroflexus thrive in?
Herpetosiphon
Which genus in the phylum Chloroflexi is nonphotosynthetic?
Pentose phosphate pathway
What glycolysis pathway does Cyanobacteria use?
Trichomes
Rows of cyanobacterial cells that are in close contact with one another over a large area
Gram-negative
Are cyanobacteria gram-negative or gram-positive?
All of these
Do cyanobacteria reproduce by binary fission, budding, fragmentation, or multiple fission?
Subsection I
Cyanobacteria; unicellular rods or cocci; most are nonmotile; reproduce by binary fission or budding
Subsection II
Cyanobacteria; unicellular, though some may be held together in an aggregate by an outer wall; reproduce by multiple fission to form baeocytes
Subsection III
Filamentous cyanobacteria with branched trichomes
Subsection IV
Unbranched filamentous cyanobacteria that can form heterocysts and akinetes
Subsection V
Branched filamentous cyanobacteria that can form heterocysts and akinetes
Contain chlorophyll b, lack phycobilisomes
How do prochlorophytes differ from other cyanobacteria?
Prochlorococcus
What may be the most abundant oxygenic photosynthetic organism on Earth?
Planctomycetes
Spherical or oval, budding bacteria that lack peptidoglycan and have distinctive crateriform structures in their cell walls
Membrane bounded
What is unique about the nuclear body in Gemmata and Pirullela?
Planctomyces
Which genus of the Planctomycetes attaches to surfaces through a stalk and holdfast?
Gram-negative
Are bacteria in the genus Chlamydia gram-positive or gram-negative?
Spirochaetes
Which phylum uses an axial filament for creeping motility?
All of these
Are members of the phylum Spirochaetes aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or anaerobic?
Anaerobic, sulfide-rich aquatic environments
Where do you find members of the genus Spirochaeta?
Aerobic water and moist soils
Where do you find members of the genus Leptospira?
Spirochaetes
Members of which phylum are the causative agents of syphilis and Lyme disease?
Anaerobic
Are members of the class Bacteroides aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or anaerobic?
Oral cavity and intestinal tract
Where do you find members of the class Bacteroides?
Rods with pointed ends
What shape are members of the genus Cytophaga?
Microcysts
What are the spherical resting cells produced by the Sporocytophaga called?
Aerobic
Are Cytophaga and Sporocytophaga aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or anaerobic?