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Lifespan chapter 1
Terms in this set (28)
Science of Human Development
The science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time
Based on observations, repeated experiences, variable experiments, not theories
The repetition of a study, using different participants - the important 5th step of the scientific method
Nature vs Nurture
nature: Traits, capacities, limitations each individual inherits genetically from parents (at conception).
nurture: All environmental influences that affect development (after conception).C
Critical vs sensitive periods
critical period: When a particular type of development growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen.
sensitive period: When a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen later.
Ever changing impact that each part of the dynamic systems on interactions
A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family, gender, culture, and society.
Life Span Perspective
Study of human development that takes into account all phases of life.
Multi directional development
Overtime human characteristics change linearly, curvilinearly, and in zigzags
- Discontinuity is evident when a rapid shift occurs.
- Continuity is evident when a gradual shift occurs
Multi contextual development
Occurring in many contexts, including physical surroundings (climate, noise, population density, etc.) and family constellations.
renamed to bioecological near the end of Bronfenbrenner's life. It is the view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. There are three nested levels affecting each person
- Microsystems - Elements of the immediate surroundings such as family, friends, school and religious classes
-Exosystems - Local institutions such as school system, religious organization, and workplace
- Macrosystem - The larger contexts, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes
- Mesosystem - connects all systems
- Chronosystem - Talks about time
A group defined by the shared age of its members. Each cohort was born at about the same time and moves through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.
ES, socioeconomic status
A persons position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence. Sometimes called social class. Low SES does the most damage in infancy.
Development is multicultural
Culture affects every action and thought, it is a meaning and information system shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival . . Pursue happiness, wellbeing, and derive meaning from life.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion.
A group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance. (Social scientists think race is a misleading concept.)
Learning Within a Culture
Each community teaches their children whatever beliefs and habits their culture valued.
- Guided Participation : A concept in which entire societies teach novices the skills and habits expected within the particular culture. Often happens informally through "mutual involvement in several widespread cultural practices. . . Great importance fo learning: narratives, routine, and play"
Development is Multidisciplinary
Life is to large a concept to constrain to one science
Development is usually segmented into 3 domains - biological, cognitive, and social. Development is then further split into hormonal, moral, and emotional development which fit into the former 3 domains respectively. It can also be segmented into age divisions, such as childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, etc.
Age ranges for Different Stages of Development
Infancy 0 to 2 years
Early childhood 2 to 6 years
Middle childhood 6 to 11 years
Adolescence 11 to 18 years
Emerging Adulthood 18 to 25 years
Adulthood 25 to 65 years
Late adulthood 65 years and older
Development is Plastic
Human traits can be molded yet people maintain a certain durability of identity. This concept provides hope and realism, hope that change is possible and realism that development builds on what has come before. BBE warned as plasticity does not mean that anything is possible, just that change may occur - for better or worse.
Cells in an observer's brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action.
A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.
A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.
A hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (a longitudinal approach). (Also called cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research.)
Code of Ethics
A set of moral and specific guidelines principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
A group that exists within most educational and medical institutions whose purpose is to ensure that research follows established guidelines and remains ethical.
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