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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Henretta's America's History 8th Edition Chapter 07 Terms
Terms in this set (57)
Revolution of 1800
Thomas Jefferson called his election in 1800 a "revolution" because, after 12 years of Federalist rule, it was the peaceful transfer of federal power from the hands of the Federalist Party into the hands of the Democratic-Republican Party. In a conciliatory gesture, Jefferson proclaimed at his Inauguration, "We are all Federalists; we are all Republicans."
Thomas Jefferson's Vice-President who contested TJ for the 1800 election; later killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel while VP; conspired to lead a secession of SW territories out of union--tried and acquitted of treason
Alien & Sedition Acts & Naturalization Act
Three laws passed in 1798 that limited individual rights and threatened the fledgling party system. The Naturalization Act lengthened the residency requirement for citizenship, the Alien Act authorized the deportation of foreigners, and the Sedition Act prohibited the publication of insults or malicious attacks on the president or members of Congress.
leader of Tennessee militia; gero of Indian Wars and Battle of New Orleans; "Old Hickory"
Hamilton's plan for taking over the war debts of the states
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Anfrew Jackson's decisive defeat of the Creeks in AL in 1814
Battle of Tippicanoe
An attack on Shawnee Indians at Prophetstown on the Tippecanoe River in 1811 by American forces headed by William Henry Harrison, Indiana's territorial governor. The governor's troops traded heavy casualties with the confederacy's warriors and then destroyed the holy village.
Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson's victory over Britixh forces in final battle of War of 1812
Chief Little Turtle
Chief of the Miami Indians, his forces crushed the American army sent out to Ohio Territory in 1790 by President Washington to subdue them and make the territory safe for American settlers.
Embargo of 1807
An act of Congress that prohibited U.S. ships from traveling to foreign ports and effectively banned overseas trade in an attempt to deter Britain from halting U.S. ships at sea. The embargo caused grave hardships for Americans engaged in overseas commerce.
Era of Good Feelings
a period in the political history of the United States [1816-1825]that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. The era saw the collapse of the Federalist Party and an end to the bitter partisan disputes between it and the dominant Democratic-Republican Party during the First Party System
First Amendment Rights
prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances.
Fisrt Party System
This new stage in American politics was caused by the emergence of the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans. It was the first instance of organized political parties. These parties quickly began to look out for themselves rather than the public interest. Hamilton led the Federalists, while Jefferson led the Democratic-Republicans.
A 1789 revolution in France, that was initially welcomed by most Americans because it abolished feudalism and established a constitutional monarchy, but eventually came to seem too radical to many.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) The Marshall Court once again asserted the dominance of national over state statues in this case. The decision struck done a New York law granting a monopoly to Aaron Ogden for steamboat passenger service across the Hudson River to New Jersey. Asserting that the constitution gave the federal government authority over interstate commerce, the chief justice sided with Thomas Gibbons who held a federal license to run steamboats between the two states.
The revolution that was inspired by the French Revolution, in which Haitians led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, seized control of the colony of Saint-Domingue, the revolution created the Atlantic World's first black republic and had a large impact on the US with many people looking to escape the war fleeing.
Hamilton's commercial republic
Hamilton envisioned a wealthy, urban, sophisticated, strong U.S. based on business and manufacturing, with strong national institutions and military
Hamilton's Financial Program
As treasury secretary he devised bold politics to enhance national authority and to assist financiers and merchants, he outlined these plans in three reports to Congress. On public credit (January 1790), on a national bank (December 1970) and on manufactures (December 1791).
1814 gathering of angry, disaffected New England Federalists who hated "Mr. Madison's War" because it devastated New England's maritime economy. They considered and rejected secession, but proposed a constitutional amendment requiring 3/4 majority to authorize a declaration of war--calculating that would give New England veto-power if the western states should ever try to drag the country to war again. News of the Hartford Convention's resolution reached Washington, D.C. the same week as the American victory at New Orleans. It was the beginning of the end for the "Traitorous" Federalist Party.
British policy of forcing seaman into the Britisj Navy based on often false claims they were deserters
process of Native Americans giving up native cultures and adopting the ways of white men--dress, way of life, laws
A 1795 treaty between the United States and Britain, negotiated by John Jay. The treaty accepted Britain's right to stop neutral ships. In return, it allowed Americans to submit claims for illegal seizures and required the British to remove their troops and Indian agents from the Northwest Territory.
Jefferson's agrarian republic
Jefferson's vision of a free, independent, rural society of roughly equal citizens who are actively engaged in self-government
The most important Chief Justice on SCOTUS, he served from 1803 to 1836. A Federalist to his core, Marshall expanded the power of the Supreme Court, and fiercely defended the nationalist vision of Hamilton to support the commercial development of the country through enforcing the sacred right of contract in defense of property rights.
John Quincy Adams
highly educated and worldly son of John Adams; skilled diplomat who negotiated Monroe Doctrine
John Marshall's judicial philosophy that the SCOTUS had the last word on the constitutionality of all legislative acts
Judiciary Act of 1789
An act that established a federal district court in each state and three circuit courts to hear appeals from the districts, with the Supreme Court having the final say. It also specified that cases arising in state courts that involved federal laws could be appealed to the Supreme Court.
Lewis & Clark Expedition
Jefferson wanted information about the recently acquired Louisiana Purchase, it physical features, plant and animal life as well as native peoples. So in 1804 Jefferson sent his personal secretary Meriwether Lewis and William Clark an army officer to explore the region. They traveled for 1,000 miles up the Missouri. Then in 1805 they began their epic 1,300 mile journey into unknown country, they now traveled with Sacagewea. Their report after this journey prompted some Americans to envision a nation that would span the continent.
The 1803 purchase of French territory west of the Mississippi River that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the size of the United States and opened the way for future American expansion west. The purchase required President Thomas Jefferson to exercise powers not explicitly granted to him by the Constitution.
Marbury v. Madison
An 1803 Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in finding that parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789 were in conflict with the Constitution. In this case, the Supreme Court assumed legal authority to overrule acts of other branches of the government for the first time.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) When Congress created the Second Bank of the United States in 1816, it allowed the bank to set up state branches that competed with state chartered banks. The Maryland legislature imposed a tax on notes issued by the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank. The Second Bank refused to pay, claiming that the tax infringed in national powers and was therefore unconstitutional. The state's lawyers then invoked Jefferson's argument: that Congress lacked the constitutional authority to charter a bank. And even if a national bank was legitimate the lawyers argued, Maryland could tax it activities within the state.
In 1823 the president declared that the American continents were no longer subject to further colonization. This policy thirty years became this. In return Monroe pledged he would not interfere in the internal concerns of European nations.
(1803-1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions. They revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription. The wars are traditionally seen as a continuation of the Revolutionary Wars, which broke out in 1792 during the French Revolution. Initially, French power rose quickly as the armies of Napoleon conquered much of Europe.
a political party in the United States. During the administration of John Quincy Adams (1825-1829), the president's supporters were referred to as Adams Men or Anti-Jackson. When Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United States in 1828, this group went into opposition. The use of the term "National Republican" dates from 1830.
The Bank War refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) during the Andrew Jackson administration (1829-1837). Anti-Bank Jacksonian Democrats were mobilized in opposition to the national bank's re-authorization on the grounds that the institution conferred economic privileges on financial elites, violating U.S. constitutional principles of social equality
Northwest Indian Wars
The Northwest Indian War (1785-1795), also known as Little Turtle's War and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native tribes, with minor support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. It followed centuries of conflict over this territory, first among Native American tribes, and then with the added shifting alliances among the tribes and the European powers: France, Great Britain, and their colonials.
Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
replacing federal notes with little remaoning value with new notes at face value
Strict vs. Loose Construction
Two schools of thought on how the Constitution should be interpreted. Jefferson, opposing the Bank of the U.S. on strict constructionist grounds, argued that if the Constitution did not explicitly and clearly delegate a power to the federal government (like the power to form a federally chartered bank), than the power is unconstitutional. Hamilton, advocating the federal government's right to charter a national bank, argued on loose constructionist grounds that if the purpose of the law is reasonable and the means just, than the "necessary and proper" clause (the "elastic clause") justifies it as constitutional.
federal charges on imported goods; "protects" domestic manufacturers from foreign competition
Tecumseh & Tenkswatawa
Native American leader of the Shawnees in Ohio, he organized an Indian Confederacy to fight white Americans in a united front. He sided with the British in the War of 1812 after his men were attacked at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was away, organizing Indian tribes in the South--mainly the Creek. Tecumseh was later killed fighting with the British against the American invasion of Canada.
Treaty of Ghent
At first American commissioners: John Quincy Adams, Gallatin and Clay demanded territory in Canada and Florida, while British diplomats sought and Indian buffer state between the US and Canada. Both sides quickly realized that these objectives were not worth the cost of prolonged warfare. And on Christmas Eve, 1814 this treaty was signed retaining the prewar borders of the United States.
Treaty of Greenville
A 1795 treaty between the United States and various Indian tribes in Ohio. American negotiators acknowledged Indian ownership of the land, and in return for various payments, the Western Confederacy ceded most of Ohio to the United States. The treaty brought only temporary peace to the region.
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
1798 resolutions condemning the Alien and Sedition Acts, submitted to the federal government by the Virginia and Kentucky state legislatures. The resolutions tested the idea that state legislatures could judge the constitutionality of federal laws and nullify them.
succession of Presidents from VA: Washington, Jefferson, Madison, & Monroe
Group of influential young politicians from Southern and Western states who were fierce advocates of American nationalism and expansion. They eyed British Canada to the North, the lands still in Indian hands east of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida as attractive new territories for the U.S. to acquire. Led by Henry Clay of KY and John C. Calhoun of SC, they badgered Congress and the President for a Declaration of War against Great Britain while she was preoccupied with fighting Napoleon in Europe.
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
A proclamation issued by President George Washington in 1793, allowing U.S. citizens to trade with all belligerents in the war between France and Great Britain.. American merchant ships claimed a right to pass through Britain's naval blockade of French ports, and American firms quickly took over the lucrative sugar trade between France and its West Indian islands.
William Henry Harrison
A 1797 incident in which American negotiators in France were rebuffed for refusing to pay a substantial bribe. The incident led the United States into an undeclared war that curtailed American trade with the French West Indies and resulted in the capture of nearly two hundred French and American merchant vessels.
Bank of the United States
A bank chartered in 1790, jointly owned by private stockholders and the national government. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton argued that the bank would provide stability to the specie-starved American economy by making loans to merchants, handling government funds, and issuing bills of credit.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, officially ratified by 1791. The amendments safeguard fundamental personal rights, including freedom of speech and religion, and mandate legal procedures, such as trial by jury.
A political faction in the French Revolution. Many Americans embraced the democratic ideology of the radical Jacobins, and like them, formed political clubs and began to address one another as "citizen."
Report on Public Credit
Alexander Hamilton's January 1790 report recommending that the federal government should assume all state debts and fund the national debt-i.e., offer interest on it rather than repaying it-at full value. Hamilton's goal was to make the new country creditworthy, not debt free. Critics of his plan complained that it would benefit speculators.
Report on Manufactures
A proposal by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton in 1791 calling for the federal government to urge the expansion of American manufacturing while imposing tariffs on foreign imports.
A 1794 uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania in response to enforcement of an unpopular excise tax on whiskey. The federal government responded with a military presence that caused dissidents to disperse before blood was shed.
(1795) The agreement between the United States and Spain that reopened the Mississippi River to American trade and allowed settlers to export crops via the Spanish-held port of New Orleans. This was supported by Jefferson who had long championed settlement in the west. This agreement was later compromised by Napoleon Bonaparte after he signed a secret treaty that returned Louisiana to France and restricted American access to New Orleans. This lead to the purchase of New Orleans.
Washington's Farewell Address
Referred to as Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe, and an avoidance of political parties and factions.
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