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EDU 358 midterm
Terms in this set (124)
-a long-term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience
-process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior
-the individual process of constructing understanding based on experience from a wide range of sources
-change in an individual caused by experience
components of good teaching
-self knowledge/self regulation
-application of education research
concerns of beginning teachers
-dealing with parents
-gettting along with other teachers
factors that influence learning
principles observed over and over (stands test of time)
why are we seeing whats happening
less than .5% of research were by chance
types of research
1. Quantitative research methods
2. Qualitative research methods
3. Conceptual articles (empirical findings)
descriptive studies and statistics
-Research that measures behaviors and attributes through observation rather than testing
-May include demographic information and other specific attributes
-Comparison of two of more variables to determine cause and effect
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, ANCOVA, MANOVA)
-designed to reveal a target audience's range of behavior and the perceptions that drive it with reference to specific topics or issues. It uses in-depth studies of small groups of people to guide and support the construction of hypotheses
conceptual research articles
-involves trying to give a written explanation of the phenomenon being studied
-may cite other empirical research as a part of the explanation
-One of the easiest ways to note whether an educational research article is conceptual or empirical is whether there are any participants mentioned. If there are no participants then it is most likely conceptual
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
receptor cells, neurons, glial cells
types of neurons
, motor (carry out)
parts of neurons
soma (cell body)
axon- electrical charge sent through
dendrites-sends electrical charge to nucleus
terminal buttons (axon endings)-activates chemical neurotransmitters
medulla-heart rate, sneezing, swallowing
pons- breathing, brain communcation, hearing, taste, balance
reticular formation- attention and consciousness
4 lobes- frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
thalamus- recieving senses except smell
hypothalamus-hormones, sleep, hunger
hypocampus-information from working memory to long term memory
neurons creating new synapses with other neurons
neurons specialize what they do so not all are the same
useless synapses disapear
process of sheath go around axon to create fastness
the adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats
the growth and development of nervous tissue
experience-expectant vs experience dependent plasticity
what all humans learn (walking and talking) vs culture and environment
can you lose synapses?
yes, its inevitable and sometimes desireable
can you teach specifically to the left brain or to the right brain?
what enhances brain functioning?
good sleep and exercising
cognitive skills change because?
people are constantly trying to make sense of the world
Changes are influenced by
maturation- biological changes
social experiences-learning from others
equilibration- balancing act
Piaget's basic tendencies in thinking
def of organization
ongoing process of combining, arranging, recombining, and rearranging behaviors and thoughts into coherent systems or categories
def of schemes
organized systems of actions or thought that allow us to mentally represent or "think about" the objects and events in our world
def of adaptation
adjusting to the environment
def of assimilation
incorporating info into existing schemes
def of accomoodation
changing existing schemes
def of equilibration
-Organizing, assimilating, and accommodating
-searching for a balance
-Before you are in a state of disequilibrium.
Piaget stages of cognitive development
1. sensorimotor stage
2. preoperational stage
3. concrete operations stage
4. formal operations stage
-Development of imitation, memory, and thought
-Recognition of object permanence
-Beginning of goal-directed actions
-Language acquisition and use
-Logical reasoning (unidirectional)
concrete operations stage
-Solve logical problems through manipulation
-Laws of conservation
- Understand reversibility
Formal operations stage
-Scientific reasoning (logico-mathematical)
-Social, multilayered, complex thinking
what are some limitations of piaget's stages?
-children don't always think in ways that are consistent with theories
-theory underestimate children's abilities
-role of culture factors in development is overlooked
-Russian social psychologist
-Developed his theory and was vocal about its differences from Piaget's theory
-Died at the age of 37
-Some say his theory was incomplete due to his early death.
basic assumptions about Vygotsky's theoryy
-Human activities take place in social settings and cannot be understood apart from these settings.
-Social interactions create our cognitive structures and thinking processes.
Vygotsky's three main influences on cognitive development
1. social sources of individual thought
2. cultural tools
3. zone of proximal development
social sources of individual thought
Knowledge is co-constructed through shared activities.
The co-constructed ideas are then internalized.
Psychological (language & symbols)
zone of proximal development
Area where the child cannot solve a problem alone, but can be successful under adult guidance or in collaboration with a more advanced peer.
self talk or private speech
talking to self guiding self through process
don't actually say out loud
taking in social message and placing it on yourself
adapting those ideas to yourself
support from adult going into ZPD
what's common between Piaget and Vygotsky?
-qualitative changes in the nature of thought
-challenge is necessary for learning to occur
-readiness of learning is important
-social interaction is a necessary component for learning
what are some differences between piaget and vygotsky?
-How essential is language to learning?
-What are the type of experiences necessary for learning and development?
-What are the most valuable types of social interactions?
-How much does culture influence development?
Is inner speech good or bad?
limitations of Vygostky's theory
-View may have overemphasized the role of social interaction.
-Because he died young, Vygotsky was not able to develop and elaborate on his theories.
how do you apply vygotsky and piaget with teaching?
-match well-students should be challenged, not bored, but not overworked either
-active learning-Students should act, manipulate, observe, and then talk and/or write about what they have experienced
Bronfenbrenners bioecological model of development
Microsystem: immediate relationships and activities
parents, teachers, peers
Mesosystem: relationships among microsystems
parents interacting with teachers, etc.
Exosystem: social settings
Erikson's psychosocial theory of development
-Eight life stages, each with primary developmental crises
-Adequate resolution of crisis leads to greater personal and social competence.
--Inadequate resolution leads to psychological and social problems.
-Positive resolution of an earlier stage will promote a positive resolution in the current stage and vice versa.
Erikson's 8 stages
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Infant)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Toddler)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschooler)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (School-aged child)
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescent)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adult)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle-age Adult)
8. Integrity vs. Ego Despair (Older Adult)
self concept vs self esteem
knowledge and belief about themsleves/feelings, attitudes, expectations vs evaluation of self worth
theory of mind
An understanding that other people are people too, with their own minds, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires, and perceptions
-linked with self reflection
Kholbergs theory of moral development
-Judgments are based on self-interest
-Obedience and Punishment Orientation
-Judgments are based on traditional family values and social expectations.
-Being "Nice"/Relationships Orientation
-Law and Order Orientation
-Judgments are based on more abstract and personal ethical principles.
-Social Contract Orientation
-Universal Ethical Principles Orientation
Giligan's ethic of care (3 stages)
1. Orientation toward individual Survival
2. Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
3. Morality of Nonviolence
Controlling; often do not allow children agency; not abusive, but not openly affectionate
Clear limitations/expectations and clearly enforced rules, but also affectionate
No clear limitations/expectations and no clearly enforced rules, but highly affectionate
No clear limitations/expectations, no affection, and little attention
Whenever two or more sensations occur together often enough, they will become associated.
- learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such as fear, increased muscle tension, salivation, or sweating
-Neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an -emotional or physiological response.
-Eventually, neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus leading to a conditioned response.
we all have some potential to learn and to be taught
association between different types of stimuli and what gets paired
unconditional stimulus comes after conditional stimulus without a huge gap of time
no more conditional response over period of time without conditional stimuli
take what you learned and transfered it
a treatment for phobias in which the patient is exposed to progressively more anxiety-provoking stimuli and taught relaxation techniques
-We learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment.
-Behaviors are preceded by antecedents and followed by consequences.
-Operant behavior can be altered (learned) by changes in the antecedents, consequences, or both
An antecedent stimulus just before a particular behavior occurs
-An additional cue following the first one
-Must occur immediately
-Fade use of prompt quickly, so students don't become dependent on it instead of the cue
changing behavior with cues and prompts
increases a desired behavior
Increases a behavior by adding a desired consequence
i.e. rewarding good grades by giving $5 everytime he gets an A
Increases a behavior by removing an undesired consequence
i.e. rewarding good behavior with taking away a chore or homework assaignment
decrease an undesired behavior
Suppresses a behavior by adding an undesired consequence
i.e. child do extra homework when they disrupt the class
Suppresses a behavior by removing a desired consequence
i.e. takes away recess when child disrupts class
reinforcing behaviors until they do it without being prompted
-baby steps until desired behavior is reached
actions that take place to reinforce to reach desired behavior
-behaviors joined together to reach end goal
the disappearance of a previously learned behavior when the behavior is not reinforced
always receive a consequence
based on an amount of time
based on number of responses
based on consistent reward patterns
Based on varying numbers of responses or varying time intervals. Provides the most persistence.
1.The intended student behavior
2.The conditions under which the behavior will occur
3. The criteria for acceptable performance
1. Begin by stating the objectives in general terms, then clarify by listing sample behaviors.
2. Current research supports this approach
Cognitive Domain objectives
-openly thinking about something
the affective domain
-openly feeling/experiencing about something
Characterization by value
-basic perceptions and reflex actions to skilled, creative movements
-Can sometimes be difficult to separate from other objectives
-May be seen in specialized classes such as physical education, the arts, special education, or technical/vocational education
social cognitive theory
-The behavioral view of learning provides an inadequate explanation of learning language and culture.
-includes learning from modeling (social) as well as thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and judgments (cognitive)
triarchic recripocal causality
Dynamic interplay between personal, environmental, and behavioral influences
-physcial and social environments
four elements of observational learning
4.Motivation and Reinforcement
observational learning in teaching
-Encouraging existing behaviors
-Teaching new behaviors and attitudes
The ability to make intentional choices, design and execute plans and actions
Beliefs about personal competence in a given area
-Strong predictor of behavior
-Contains many perceptions about the self, including self-efficacy
Judgments of self-worth
four sources of self efficacy
1. mastery experiences
2. physiological and emotional arousal
3. vicarious experiences
4. social persuasion
factors that influence self regulation
1. knowledge-understanding self, subject, task, and learning strategy
2. motivation-see the purpose in the task
3. volition-follow through and persistance
self regulation cycle
1. Analyzing the task
2. Setting goals
3. Engaging in learning
how to teach students to be self regulated
-Provide opportunities to identify and analyze the task at hand.
-Teach learning strategies.
-Encourage students to reflect on whether they were successful and devise strategies for overcoming shortcomings in their self-regulation process.
cognitive behavior modification
-Focus on self-talk to regulate behavior:
meichenbaums self regulation steps
1. Cognitive modeling
2. Overt, external guidance
3. Overt self-guidance
4. Faded, over self guidance
5. Covert self-instruction
emotional self regulation
-Awareness of own emotions and the feelings of others
Responsible decision making
teaching towards self regulation and self efficacy
1. Assign complex tasks
2. Share control with students
3. assign tasks that self evaluative
4. encourage collaboration
Recommended textbook explanations
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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