iGCSE Chemistry: Fundamentals - Core
Describe the arrangement and movement of the particles in a liquid
Particles are close together but irregular. The particles are free to move.
Describe the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in a gas
Particles are far apart and there are no forces between them. Energy is high. The particles move quickly and freely.
Describe the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in a solid
Particles are close together and regularly packed. Energy is low. The particles vibrate around a fixed point.
Draw 3 particle diagrams to show the arrangement of particles in a solid, liquid and gas. Draw arrows between them and label boiling, condensing and freezing
X=boiling, Y=condensing, Z=freezing
What happens when something condenses?
Condensation is the change of state when a substance cools from gas to liquid
What happens when something evaporates?
Evaporation is the change of state when a substance heats up from liquid to gas
What happens when something melts?
Melting is the change of state when a substance heats up from solid to liquid
How many different elements are there in Be(OH)₂ ?
What is meant by the term compound?
A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements chemically joined together
What is meant by the term element?
An element is a substance made of only one type of atom
What is meant by the term mixture?
Different substances in the same space, but not chemically combined.
What is meant by the term atom?
An atom is the smallest part of an element
Explain why atoms are neutral
The numbers of electrons and protons are equal
State the mass and charge of a neutron
Neutron: mass=1, charge =0
State the mass and charge of a proton
Proton: mass=1, charge=+1
State the mass and charge of an electron
Electron: mass=almost zero, charge=-1
State the particle that is found in the shells orbiting the nucleus
State the particles that are found within the nucleus of an atom
Protons and neutrons
How many neutrons in a typical atom of fluorine?
How many protons in a fluorine atom?
What is a mass number?
Mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom
What is an atomic number?
The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom
What is meant by the term relative atomic mass, Aᵣ?
The average mass of an atom of an element, relative to 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
What is the atomic number of a chlorine atom?
What is the relative atomic mass (Aᵣ) of a potassium atom?
How are elements arranged in the periodic table?
in order by atomic number
On the Periodic table what is the meaning of the word Group?
A Group is a vertical column of similar elements
On the Periodic Table what is the meaning of the word Period?
A Period is a horizontal row of elements
If an element doesn't conducts electricity, is it a metal or a non-metal?
Where are non-metals found on the periodic table?
At the top right, plus hydrogen
What do each of the following state symbols represent: (s), (l), (g), (aq)
(s) - solid. (l) - liquid. (g) - gas. (aq) - aqueous (in solution)
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of ammonium nitrate (NH₄NO₃)
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂)
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of hydrated copper (II) sulfate (CuSO₄.5H₂O)
Write the word and chemical equation for the thermal decompostion of calcium carbonate, CaCO₃
calcium carbonate → calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaCO₃ → CaO + CO₂
What is meant by the term endothermic?
A reaction in which heat energy is taken in (surroundings get colder)
What is meant by the term exothermic?
A reaction in which heat energy is given out (surroundings get hotter)
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