England and Its colonies
Terms in this set (37)
How do England and its largely self-governing colonies prospered under a mutually beneficial trade relationship?
English settlers exported raw material such as indigo dye to England, and in return they imported English manufactured goods
Although many colonists benefited from the trade relationship with the home country, what was the real purpose of the colonial system?
to enrich Britain
The theory of mercantilism held that-
a country's ultimate goal was self-sufficiency and that all countries were in a competition to acquire the most gold and silver
Inspired by mercantilism, nations concentrate on the balance of trade. What does the balance of trade represents?
the amount of goods sold compare to the amount bought
a favorable balance meant that
more gold was coming in that going out
How did British looked to its American colonies?
as a market for British goods, a source for raw materials that were not native to Britain, and as a producer of goods and materials to be sold to other nations
While talking about the Navigation Acts of 1651, it it argued that it did not sit well with everyone- a number of colonial merchants resented the trade restrictions. From this standpoint, what was the reaction to the Navigation Act?
many continued to smuggle, or trade illegally, goods to and from other countries
What are the Navigation Acts?
a series of laws restricting colonial trade
Why did England's Parliament passed the Navigation Acts?
England viewed the colonists' pursuit of foreign markets as an economic threat
How can the mercantilist theory be used to justify the Navigation Act?
not all the products the colonist produced for export ended up on English Docks and, with the nations of Europe clamoring for their goods, many colonial merchants could not resist the opportunity to increase their wealth. However, according to the mercantilist theory, any wealth flowing from the colonies to another nation came at the expense of the home country. The protection of the British trade became essential and it was done through the Navigation Act
Charles II (1660- 1685) Colonial Policies-
angered by Massachusetts' refusal to obey English law, he revoked the colony's charter in 1684 and brought Massachusetts under royal control
What was King Charles II' reaction to colonial violations on the Navigation Acts?
punishing those colonists whom he believed most resisted English authority
Why was the Massachusetts charter revoked and why was Massachusetts brought under royal control in 1684?
failure to persuade Massachusetts to obey English laws
James II (1685 -1688) Colonial Policies -
he consolidated the Northern colonies into the Dominion of New England in 1686 and enlisted Sir Edmund Andros to rule the region
What is the context of the creation of the Dominion of New England?
Seeking to make the colonial governments more obedient, he placed the Northern colonies under a single ruler in Boston and the land from Southern Maine to New Jersey was united into one vast colony
Who was picked to rule the Dominion of New England?
Sir Edmund Andros, a veteran military officer from an aristocratic English family
How did Andros manage to make thousands of enemies amongst the Northern colonists?
He angered Puritans by questioning the lawfulness of their religion; he made it clear that the Navigation Acts would be enforced and smugglers prosecuted; he restricted local assemblies and levied taxes without any input from local leaders
Why did the colonists of Massachusetts sent their most prominent minister to London?
to try to get their old charter restored and Andros recalled
What was the name of the Massachusett's colonists most prominent minister?
Did the Massachusett's colonists most prominent minister succeeded in his mission?
before Mather could put his diplomatic skills to work, a bloodless revolution in England changed the entire political picture
William and Mary (1689-1702)
They succeeded James II after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and helped establish the supremacy of Parliament
What were the colonial policies of William and Mary after they helped establish the supremacy of Parliament following the Glorious Revolution of 1688?
Parliament then dissolved the Dominion of New England and restored the colonies' charters
What economic theory influenced the British interest in establishing colonies?
Who are the colonists whom King Charles believed most resisted English authority?
the Puritan leaders of Massachusetts had long professed their hostility to royal authority and even suggested that their corporate charter did not require them to obey Parliament
Why did Andros declared: "You have no more privileges left you, than not to be sold for slaves."
to make his hard-line attitude toward the colonists clear
Despite dissolving the Dominion of New England and restoring the colonies' charters, what changes did the English government made in the new charter?
The new charter, granted in 1691, called for the king to appoint the governor of Massachusetts and required more religious toleration and non-Puritan representation in the colonial assembly
In which ways Parliament strengthened the Navigation Acts in the years immediately following the Glorious Revolution?
it moved smuggling trials from colonial courts -with juries composed of colonists who often found colonial smugglers innocent- to admiralty courts presided over by English judges; it created the Board of Trade, an advisory board with broad powers to monitor colonial trade
Salutary Neglect meant that?
England relaxed its enforcement of most regulations in return for the continued economic loyalty of the colonies
Parliament saw little reason to devote large amounts of money and large numbers of soldiers to aggressively enforcing its colonial laws as long as-
raw materials continue flowing into the homeland and the colonists continued to buy English-produced goods
Why did the policy of salutary neglect work in large part?
the colonists' loyalty to Britain
What was the political structure in nearly every colony?
In nearly every colony, a governor appointed by the king serve as the highest authority; he presided over a political structure that included an advisory council, usually appointed by the governor, and a local assembly, elected by eligible colonists
What was the wide range of powers held by the governor?
he had the authority to call and disband the assembly, appoint and dismiss judges, and oversee all aspects of colonial trade
Is it accurate to say that colonial governors were not as powerful as they might seem? Explain
Using their power of the purse liberally, the colonists influenced the governor in a variety of ways, from the approval of laws to the appointment of judges
Why was the colonial system of self-governing colonies the forerunner of our modern system of self-governing states?
under England's less-than-watchful eye, the colonies were developing a taste for self-government that would eventually create the conditions for rebellion
The new charter granted in 1691 required religious toleration. What does it implies?
the Puritans would no longer be able to persecute such groups as the Anglicans- members of the Church of England- and the Quakers
How did the men and women of the colonies still considered themselves?
loyal British subjects, eager to benefit the empire as well as themselves
What shows that the colonies held the power of the purse?
The colonial assembly, not the king, paid the governor's salary