AP Comparative Government - Unit 2 Set
Terms in this set (56)
A historic statement of the rights of a political community against the monarchical state; forced restrictions on royal powers`
Parliament Act of 1911
Greatly diminished the power of the House of Lords and allowed the House of Commons to override the legislative veto of the House of Lords.
Legislators who do not hold governmental office and are not a Front Bench spokesperson in the Opposition
Cross-party British support for the welfare state that lasted from 1945 (post-WWII) to 1979
In a parliamentary system, the concept that all cabinet members agree on policy decisions and that all will be responsible for the results.
The transfer of powers from a national or central government to a state or local government, which can be revoked by the central government at any given time.
People opposed to the UK's membership in the EU and the expansion of the EU's power.
"First Among Equals"
When the authority figure or leader or most senior person in a group shares the same rank of his/ her counterparts but is unofficially the leader.
"First Past the Post"
A single member district system in which voters choose between candidates and the candidate with the largest share of the vote wins the seat.
Good Friday Agreement
An agreement to end the conflict in Northern Ireland, signed in 1998 by Protestants and Catholics, which resulted in Britain giving Northern Ireland its regional government.
The people who are actually in power -- in charge of managing the country and how taxes are spent.
Members of the House of Lords who inherit their titles (peerages) and hold their seats by right of succession. Life peers receive peerages from the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
The Irish Republican Army: a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
Margaret Thatcher. She reshaped almost every aspect of British politics by reviving the economy, reforming outdated institutions, and reinvigorating the nation's foreign policy.
Distinguished Britons named to House of Lords for their lifetime only;does note pass on to children.
Conservative Party (Tories)
House of Commons
The more powerful legislative arm of the British Parliament; made up of popularly elected members from each district of Great Britain.
House of Lords
The weaker upper chamber of parliament that consists of an unelected body which serves some judiciary functions, has the ability to amend and delay legislation, and is a chamber of revision in redrafting legislation.
Employees of the government
The location of the British Parliament: the district in London where Whitehall, Downing Street, and Parliament are all located.
Member of Parliament
Government in which a king or queen exercises central power
Report filed in 1942 in England by William Beveridge after studying social and economic conditions in the United Kingdom. Suggested that full employment and social security should be universal and cover citizens "from cradle to grave." Recommendations put into effect by Labour govt after war(Atlee replaced Churchill-a Conservative). To finance it the Labour govt sharply increased income and inheritance tax. Even Conservatives maintained protections when they took office, arguing that universal coverage counteracted arguments against income redistribution.
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
The role of the out-of-power party to formulate alternative policies and programs
National Health Service
Publicly funded health care system of the UK
A system of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election or whose party forms a major part of the ruling coalition. The executive is chosen by the legislature from among its members and the two branches are merged.
Plurality Voting System
A voting system in which the candidate who receives the largest portion of the votes, not necessarily the majority, wins the seat
The times set aside for Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (the party out of power) to criticize and scrutinize the actions and decisions of the government (the party in power); twice each week, the prime minister must answer questions fired at him or her by the opposition.
Districts in which the winner got more than 55 percent of the vote
Scottish National Party
The Party that wants Scotland to be an independent nation outside of the UK; the most popular party in Scotland
The official leadership of the opposition party that "shadows" the cabinet.
Speaker of the House
The presiding officer of the House of Commons; presides over the House's debates, determining which members may speak. The Speaker is also responsible for maintaining order during debate, and may punish members who break the rules of the House. Unlike presiding officers of legislatures in many other countries, the Speaker remains strictly non-partisan, and renounces all affiliation with his or her former political party when taking office
The economic policy of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Reduced state economic power and introduced free market and privatization with certain constraints. Deregulated the UK's market.
"The Third Way"
A compromise between rightist and leftist policies; belief in the merits of the free market and democratic socialism with its demand management and obsession with the state.In favor of growth, entrepreneurship, enterprise and wealth creation but it is also in favor of greater social justice.
Trades Union Congress
An interest group that is head of the labour unions; tends to support the Labour Party
A centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency.
"Vote of Confidence"
A vote in a parliament expressing support for a government; a government losing a vote of confidence is expected to resign
Five members of the House of Lords who serve as Britain's judges in the highest court of appeals. Cannot rule acts of Parliament unconstitutional.
Single Member Districts
An electoral district system in which only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot. They are winner-take-all elections and discourage third parties
The nationalist party in Wales that advocates more rights for the Welsh people, including use of the Welsh language. Believes in the Welsh independence from England, and which advocates for strong social programs and the interests of Wales in the House of Commons.
British prime minister since 1997 and architect of "New Labour". Favored low taxes, tightly controlled social spending, and closer ties to Europe.
Conservative party Member of Parliament (MP) who replaced Margaret Thatcher as leader of the party and therefore as Prime Minister in 1990. Major had to deal with a new recession that set in after 1990 (in part caused by the economic and financial side-effects of German Reunification). The pound was weakened and unemployment grew in Britain.
The realigned Labour Party of Tony Blair that embraced the free market while supporting strong social programs. (Part of Blair's "Third Way," a more centrist political stance)
10 Downing Street
The residence of the Prime Minister, as well as where the cabinet meets.
Collectively the executive agencies of government. This where the cabinet offices are located in Great Britain.
A combination of the universities Oxford and Cambridge, where nearly half of all parliament members earn higher education
Human Rights Act
Legislation passed by Parliament in 1998 that gave Britain its first written Bill of Rights drawn from the European Union's Convention on Human Rights.
A government statement that outlines proposed legislation; the last stage before the submission of a formal bill.
The action of bringing land, property and industries under the control of the nation