Hazards and Disasters
Terms in this set (70)
Does a disaster require outside help or not?
Characteristics of Hazards...(7)
Spatial extent, predictability, frequency, magnitude, duration, speed of onset, effects
What is the magnitude of an earthquake measured by?
What is the intensity of an earthquake measured by?
On average how many magnitude 8+ EQ's per year?
On average how many magnitude 7-7.9 EQ's per year?
On average how many magnitude 2-2.9 EQ's per year?
Horizontal movement during chch eq?
Fissures during chch eq?
Some small, 2-3 m and others as big as 100m
When did the Kasmir Earthquake occur?
8 october 2005
Magnitude of Kasmir quake?
Number of deaths and injuries in the Kasmir quake?
74,500 deaths, 106,000 injured
What % of concrete block buildings in Muzaffarabad collapsed?
What temperature of water do hurricanes need to begin forming?
26 degrees C
Where is the water temperature necessary for a hurricane to form generally found?
Tropics, 5 and 10 degrees either side of the equator
How large can a hurricane be in diameter?
In the northern hemisphere a hurricane is stronger on what side?
What is the maximum distance from the equator that an hurricane can go?
What percentage of tropical storms become hurricanes?
What are the planes called that fly into the centre of hurricanes to gather data?
On average how many hurricanes occur per year in the South Atlantic?
On average how many hurricanes occur per year?
What are the wind speeds of a Category 1 hurricane?
up to 150kmph
What are the wind speeds of a Category 2 hurricane?
up to 170kmph
What are the wind speeds of a Category 3 hurricane?
up to 210kmph
What are the wind speeds of a Category 4 hurricane?
up to 250kmph
What are the wind speeds of a Category 5 hurricane?
How long after it was initially noticed did hurricane katrina arrive?
Storm surges account for what % of hurricane deaths?
When did Hurricane Katrina occur?
What were the maximum wind speeds during hurricane katrina?
How high was the storm surge in hurricane katrina?
How many people died and were left homeless in Hurricane Katrina?
1800 dead, 800,000 homeless
When did cyclone nargis occur?
What category was cyclone nargis?
How many died in cyclone nargis?
140,000 ( govt estimate, may be more)
What was the cost of damage for cyclone Nargis?
Three areas/reasons affected by drought...
Tropical high pressure belt, rain shadowed areas, El Nino
How many drought periods have there been in Australia since 1864
How long do drought periods last in Australia?
Since when has the rainfall index in the Sahel been below 0?
Examples for Droughts:
Murray Darling Basin, Australia and Kenya/The Horn or Africa
How long has the Murray Darling Basin been in drought?
What % of Australian agricultural land was declared drought stricken in 2010?
How long has drought occured in Kenya for?
What % is precipitation of its usual amount in Kenya?
What decline in production has occured as a result of drought in Kenya?
Famine in the horn of africa has affected how many people?
How much have wheat prices increased in Kenya as a result of drought?
What is the death rate in the horn of Africa as a result of drought?
7/10,000 ( 1/10,000 is considered an emergency)
Three types of drought...
Hydrological, Meteorological, Agricultural
Three key places for nuclear rectors...
Central Europe, North Eastern Asia, North America
How many nuclear accidents have occurred in Japan since 1952?
How many nuclear accidents have occurred in the USA since 1952?
How many nuclear accidents have occurred in Europe since 1952?
What is the measure of magnitude for nuclear accidents?
The INES (international nuclear events scale) , scale of 1-7
What is the half life of iodine?
How long would it take for plutonium to be erased from an environment?
Disaster reduction index
What is the DRI made up of?
Hazard(frequency and magnitude), population size, vulnerability ( socio-economic status, political factors)
What is NZ's and Yemens DRI's for EQs?
exposed to an EQ
Disaster deficit index
What does the DDI measure?
Economic impacts of a disaster
What is the DDI value for Mexico?
$325 million ( largest of any country)
Prevalent vulnerability index
What is the PVI made up of?
Exposure and susceptibility, socio-economic fragility, resilience ( ability to cope)
Local disasters index
What does the LDI measure?
The social and environmental problems caused by a recent hazard at a local scale.
What does the LDI consider?
The expected deaths, the number of people affected, the impact of lives lost on local people
Ways in which to share risk?
Aid, Insurance, Land use planning
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