Unit II History Vocab Test

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Fertile Crescent
The curving strip of good farmland in Mesopotamia that extended from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.
Mesopotamia
A region in Southern Asia that is between the Tigris and Euphrates river
Sumer
A region in southern Mesopotamia where several early cities were developed
Tigris and Euphrates
Parallel rivers that ran for more than 1,000 miles from the mountains of southeast Asia to the Persian Gulf. Near Mesopotamia.
Anthropomorphism
Giving human characteristics to a God/god/animal/object
Ziggurat
A pyramid-shaped structure with a temple at the top.
Theocracy
Government where the priest rules in the name of God or a god/gods
Cuneiform
A system of writing developed by the Sumerians that used wedge-shaped marks made in soft clay.
Ur-Nammu
Founder of Third Dynasty of Ur. Made the first written law code.
Sargon the Great
The first ruler of the Akkadian Empire
Akkad
City located on the Euphrates which is the origin of the Akkadian culture and language
Hammurabi
A babylonian king who conquered cities controlled by the Amorites to the north and south. Created the Babylonian Empire and made Hammurabi's Code.
Indo-Europeans
Originated in the steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas.
Hittites
Indo-Europeans who had est. empire in Asia Minor.
Assyrians
Lasted about 300 years and created the library of cuneiform
Nineveh
Capital of the neo-assyrian empire in northern mesopotamia
Assurbanipal II
King of assyria, stabilized the government
Neo-Babylonians
Created the hanging gardens of Babylon and were the first astronomers.
Nebuchadnezzar
Creator of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, and the destruction of Jerusalem's temples
Lydians
People during the age of Darius I
Achaemenids
Time of the ruling of Cyrus and Darius I
Cyrus the Great
Founder of the Achaemenid Empire
Darius I
Rose to power after fall of Cyrus
Qanats
A sloped tunnel that leads water to a village
Bureaucracy
Government whereby important decisions are made by government officials, not elected representatives
Phoenicians
Masters of sea and trade
Hebrews
Followers of god who went to find the promise land
Torah/Tanakh
first 5 books of laws, protected powerless
YHWH
Sacred name of God for the Israelites
Abram/Abraham
Father of the hebrews, creator of the old covenant
ethical monotheism
the basis of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
Habiru
Means wanderers or travelers, also possible root of Hebrew
Canaan
a large city in Phoenicia.
Jacob/Israel
Son of Abraham and divided hebrews into 12 tribes
Old Covenant
When god makes his promise to Abraham.
Moses
A leader of the Israelites, freed the Israelites from enslavement by the Egyptians
Sinai Covenant
when god talks to Moses and gives him the 10 commandments for the israelites.
Tabernacle
A portable worship space used by the Israelites
Patriarch
A male in charge of a family or tribe
10 Commandments
A set of 10 laws handed down to Moses by God on Mount Sinai
King Saul
First king of Israel (1020-1000 BCE), inaugurated to satisfy the demand for a king
King David
Second king of Israel (1000-961 BCE). Captured Jerusalem and extended the kingdom to great sizes.
King Solomon
Third king of Israel (961-922 BCE). Raised taxes higher than before; autocratic rule.
Judah
A city of Jews and also a Jewish tribe
Babylonian Captivity
Judah was captured, all the temples were destroyed, and the Jews were captured
Diaspora
The dispersion of Jews outside of Israel